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What could give modern humans an edge over Neanderthals?

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What could give modern humans an edge over Neanderthals?

By studying fossilized skulls, scientists know that Neanderthal brain size was the same, if not slightly larger, than that of modern humans. However, researchers know little about Neanderthal brain development because soft tissue is poorly preserved in the fossil record.

A fascinating study recently emerged that revealed a possible difference that may have given modern humans, or Homo sapiens, a cognitive advantage over Neanderthals, the Stone Age hominids that lived in Europe and parts of Asia before they went extinct about 40,000 years ago. .

Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics in Dresden, Germany, said they have identified a genetic mutation that caused faster creation of neurons in the Homo sapiens brain. The Neanderthal variant of the gene in question, known as TKTL1, differs from the modern human variant in one amino acid.

“We have identified the gene that makes us human,” said study author Wieland Huttner, professor and emeritus director of the institute.

When two versions of the gene were inserted into mouse embryos, the research team found that the modern human variant of the gene resulted in an increase in a particular type of cell that makes neurons in the neocortex region of the brain. The scientists also tested two variants of the gene in ferret embryos and lab-grown brain tissue made from human stem cells called organoids, with similar results.

The team argued that this ability to produce more neurons likely gave Homo sapiens a cognitive advantage unrelated to overall brain size, suggesting that modern humans have “a more prominent neocortex than ancient Neanderthals,” according to a study published in the journal Science.

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“This shows us that although we don’t know how many neurons were in the Neanderthal brain, we can assume that modern humans have more neurons in the frontal lobe of the brain, where TKTL1 activity is higher than in Neanderthals,” Hattner explained.

“There was a discussion about whether the frontal lobe of Neanderthals was as large as that of modern humans,” he added.

“But that doesn’t matter because (from this study) we know that modern humans should have more neurons in the frontal lobe, and we think that’s an advantage when it comes to cognitive ability.”

“premature” opening

Alisson Muotri, professor and director of the UC San Diego Stem Cell Program and Archaealization Center, was not involved in the study, but said that while animal experiments revealed “drastic differences” in neuron production, the difference was more subtle in organoids.

“This has only been done in one cell line, and since we have tremendous variability with this brain organoid protocol, it would be ideal to repeat the experiments with a second cell line,” he said.

It’s also possible that an archaic version of the TKTL1 gene was not unique to Neanderthals, Muotri noted. Most genomic databases focus on Western Europe, and it is possible that human populations in other parts of the world may have a Neanderthal version of this gene.

“I think it’s rather premature to propose a distinction between Neanderthal and modern human cognition,” he said.

More recent archaeological discoveries have shown that Neanderthals were more complex than pop culture depictions (pictorial cavemen) suggest. Our ancient relatives knew how to survive in cold and hot climates and used sophisticated tools. They also wove yarn, swam and made art.

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Co-author of the study and geneticist Svante Paabo, director of the Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. Max Planck in Leipzig, Germany, made the first attempt to extract, sequence and analyze ancient DNA from Neanderthal bones.

Their work led to the discovery in 2010 that early humans intermingled with Neanderthals. Subsequently, scientists compared the Neanderthal genome with the genetic records of modern humans to see how our genes overlap and differ: TKTL1 is just one of dozens of identified genetic differences, and some of the common genes may have implications for human health.

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‘My power is really low’: NASA’s Mars Insight rover prepares to launch from the Red Planet

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NASA Lander InSight He has delivered what may be his last message from Mars as he embarks on a historic mission to uncover the secrets of the Red Planet’s interior.

In November, the space agency warned that the probe could be running out of time as dust continued to condense and stifle InSight’s power.

“Spacecraft power generation continues to decline as windblown dust accumulates on solar panels,” NASA said in a statement. Update November 2. “The end is expected to come in the coming weeks.”

message shared NASA The InSight Twitter account tweeted on Monday: “My power is very low so this might be the last photo I can upload. Don’t worry about me: my time here has been productive and uneventful. If I can keep talking to my mission team, I will—but I will.” Subscribe here soon. Thank you for staying with me.”

My power is very low, so this might be the last photo I can upload. But don’t worry about me: my time here has been productive and uneventful. If I can keep talking to my mission team, I will, but I’ll sign here soon. Thank you for staying with me. pic.twitter.com/wkYKww15kQ

— NASA InSight (@NASAInSight) December 19, 2022

A geologist robot armed with a hammer and a seismograph first reached the barren expanse of Elysium Planitia in November 2018.

Since then, she has carried out geological excavations, taking the first measurements of earthquakes with a high-tech seismometer placed right on the surface of Mars.

Last month, the solar-powered car released an update to remind us of its time in space.

“I was lucky to live on two planets. Four years ago I made it safely to the second one, much to the joy of my family at first. Thanks to my team for taking me on this journey of discovery. I hope I can be proud of you.”

According to the published mission, Insight has measured more than 1,300 seismic events since it was published, and more than 50 of them had signals clear enough for the team to extract information about their location on Mars. Results.

The probe’s data also provided detailed information about Mars’ interior, liquid core, surprisingly variable remnants beneath the surface of an extinct magnetic field, climate and seismic activity.

old for Its launch in 2018NASA Chief Scientist Jim Green said the mission was “fundamental to understanding the origins of our solar system and how it became what it is today.”

NASA will not declare the mission complete until Insight confirms the arrival of two spacecraft orbiting Mars that are relaying their information back to Earth.

In 2018, the veteran rover announced the capabilities end of his 15 year stay Sending an incomplete photo of the Valley of Perseverance.

A severe dust storm darkened the sky around the solar-powered rover, shattering the sun and leaving behind a dark image with white spots due to camera noise. The transmission is interrupted before the complete image can be transmitted.

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What’s new on February 7, 2023

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OnePlus 11 5G Buds Pro 2 evento

Being very close companies, OPPO and OnePlus have decided to create a new partnership, with the latter being a pioneer in the market. It has become the representative of the best smartphones in the group, and this will be seen very soon.

Proving this, OnePlus has announced that it will have news soon. The following brand assets will be announced on February 7, 2023. We are talking about OnePlus 11 5G and Buds Pro 2.


In recent years, OnePlus has been showcasing new hardware in an attempt to find a new place in the market. The brand has not always seen its full potential, betting on mid-range or entry-level smartphones.

The situation is changing, and the novelty will go on sale in early 2023, February 7. It is on this day that the new OnePlus 11 5G will be presented with all the expected news. We definitely have the new Qualcomm Snapdragon 8 Gen 2 SoC here. There's still 16GB of storage left and 256GB of onboard storage.

OnePlus 11 5G Buds Pro 2 events

It is expected that he will receive a 6.7-inch OLED display with a resolution of 1440p and a frequency of 120 Hz. In the field of photography, we will have an important change: a 50 MP main camera, a 48 MP ultra wide-angle camera and a 32 MP telephoto lens with 2x zoom. For selfies and video calls, you'll have a 16-megapixel camera.

The photography partnership with Hasselblad will continue with OnePlus for fine-tuning and some additions. This alliance has brought important results for the best smartphones of the brand, guaranteeing the best photos in any situation.

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OnePlus 11 5G Buds Pro 2 events

In addition to the new OnePlus 11 5G, another brand new feature is also expected to arrive at the event. We're talking about the Buds Pro 2, which are solidifying an audio commitment that's becoming more of a reality. The brand promises "rich stereo quality sound with crystal clear clarity".

Stays like this marked by the beginning of February, another important novelty will enter the market. OnePlus wants to reclaim its place, and that will be the brand's bet for years to come. OnePlus 11 5G and Buds Pro 2 take the first step in this direction.

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New POCO Smartphone Seen in Certification May Debut Soon

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New POCO Smartphone Seen in Certification May Debut Soon

According to information provided by Mukul Sharma, the unidentified POCO device can be identified by the model number 22127PC95I. Due to the fact that it was first seen online, the marketing name of this equipment is still a mystery.

POCO has not launched new mobile devices, including smartphones, to the market for some time now. On the other hand, several POCO smartphones such as POKO X5 and X5 Pro have been spotted on various certification sites, suggesting that the company will release these products soon. Today a new smartphone from the sub-brand xiaomi has been spotted on the BIS India website but the device does not have a name or any other details associated with it.

According to information provided by Mukul Sharma, the unidentified POCO device can be identified by the model number 22127PC95I. Due to the fact that it was first seen online, the marketing name of this equipment is still a mystery. It is possible that it will debut as a mid-range smartphone. The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) website, other than the model number of the smartphone, does not provide any additional information about the device. However, this seems to indicate that the product will be available in the Indian market very soon.

In other related news, POCO X5 5G has recently been seen on several certification sites including SIRIM in Malaysia, BIS in India and the US FCC. According to various sources, it is possible that this is a renamed or modified version Redmi Note 12 5Gwhich was recently released in China.

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It is supposed to be equipped screen 6.67″ AMOLED display with 120Hz refresh rate and chipset Snapdragon 4 Gen 1 inside. Can run MIUI 13 based on android 12 and have LPDDR4x RAM in addition to UFS 2.2 storage. The front camera is rumored to be 8MP while the main rear camera will be 48MP with 2MP depth. May have the ability drums 5000 mAh and 33W fast charging support.

In addition POCO X5 Pro 5G has recently been seen on various sites dedicated to certification. The battery is said to have a capacity of 5000 mAh and can charge at 67W. It will come with MIUI 14 preinstalled and will support n5, n7, n38, n41, n77 and n78 network bands. 5G.

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