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The South Pole has been heating three times the global average over the past 30 years, the study said



The South Pole has been heating three times the global average over the past 30 years, the study said

The study, published in the journal Nature Climate Change on Monday, sheds new light on the most remote areas on Earth. While scientists have known for years that regions outside Antarctica are heating up, they previously thought the South Pole, which is located deep in the interior, was isolated from rising global temperatures.

“This highlights that global warming is global and is heading to these remote places,” said Kyle Clem, postdoctoral researcher in Climate Sciences at the University of Wellington, and lead author of the study.

Clem and his team analyzed data on weather stations in the South Pole, as well as climate models to check for warming in the interior of Antarctica. They found that between 1989 and 2018, the South Pole had been heating up around 1.8 degrees Celsius over the past 30 years at a rate of +0.6 ° C per decade – triple the global average.

Scientists say the main cause of warming is rising sea surface temperatures thousands of miles away in the tropics. Over the past 30 years, warming in the western tropical Pacific Ocean – areas near the equator north of Australia and Papua New Guinea – means there is an increase in warm air being carried to the South Pole.

“It’s wild. This is the most remote place on the planet. Significance is how extreme temperatures swing and shift over Antarctica’s interior, and the mechanism that moves them is linked 10,000 kilometers (6,200 miles) north of the continent in the tropical Pacific,” Clem said.

Melting sea ice, Antarctic heat wave

Warmer temperatures have been recorded in other parts of Antarctica in recent years and this warming has serious global consequences, especially for the millions of people living on the coast who are vulnerable to sea level rise.
The Antarctic ice sheet contains enough water to raise global sea levels by nearly 200 feet, according to the World Meteorological Organization.
In March, climate scientists recorded the first heat wave at a research base in East Antarctica and in February, the hottest temperature ever recorded in Antarctica – 18.3 degrees Celsius (65 degrees Fahrenheit) – measured at the Argentine Esperanza research station.
The loss of ice in this region has also increased at an alarming rate over the past few decades. In the past 22 years, one giant glacier in East Antarctica has retreated nearly three miles.

While the South Pole remains below freezing and tends to stay that way, Clem says that the warming trends seen at the Pole are related to what we see on the coast and the Antarctic Peninsula.

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Warming “begins at the beach and works inland,” Clem said.

“As you move closer to the coast, where warming comes in, you will start to see more impact. When you reach a point near freezing you start to melt. Or you melt sea ice and you start to warm the ocean in the Weddell Sea and it affects life in that area, “he said.

Is the climate crisis to blame?

Initially, scientists discovered the South Pole actually cooled more than one degree during the 1970s and 1980s, while global temperatures were rising. The team said the cold period is to a natural climate pattern that occurs in cycles of 20 to 30 years.

Then the trend reverses rapidly “and suddenly we have almost 2 degrees of warming at the turn of the century,” Clem said.

A jump from 1 degree cooling to 2 degrees heating indicates an increase of 3 degrees.

Warming of the ocean causes massive loss of ice in Greenland and Antarctica, NASA research shows

Meanwhile, global temperatures have risen about 1 degree Celsius (1.8 degrees Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial levels and the aim is to keep global average temperatures within 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 degrees Fahrenheit) to prevent the worst effects of the climate crisis.

Clem said extreme fluctuations in the South Pole indicate that natural variability “mask” the effects of human-induced climate change.

The team found that warming was caused by natural variations in sea surface temperatures for decades. But these natural climate drivers “act together” with, or are reinforced by, global greenhouse gas emissions.

“We have a natural process that will always occur in the midst of global warming and human influence on the climate system,” Clem said. “When the two work together, it is extraordinary.”

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The science behind heating

In addition to human intervention from greenhouse gas emissions, the researchers say there are several natural processes that work behind the scenes to warm the South Pole.

A climate phenomenon called the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), which regulates ocean temperatures in the Pacific Ocean, shifts from a positive to a negative phase at the turn of the 21st century. It warms the western tropical Pacific, and causes more severe storms and storms.

At the same time, a wind system called Southern Annular Mode (SAM) moves south, bringing extra warmth from the tropics to Antarctica. Changes in SAM are to the Antarctic ozone hole and increase greenhouse gases, according to Clem. Experts are not sure what caused the change in the IPO, but have not ruled out human activity.

All of that makes the South Pole one of the fastest warming places on the planet.

The upper limit of natural variability

Since the temperature record of the South Pole only returned to 1957, scientists cannot draw definitive conclusions that warming was driven by human activity.

So they used a model that simulates Earth’s climate with concentrations of greenhouse gases that represent pre-industrial times – without human influence.

Scientists have recorded the first heat wave in this part of Antarctica

In the simulation, the team calculates all 30-year trends that might occur in the South Pole in the models. They found that the observed warming of 1.8 C was higher than 99.9% of all 30-year trends that might occur without human influence.

The authors say that while this means warming “lies in the upper limit of the range of natural variability that is simulated” the nature of the trend is “extraordinary.”

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“Almost everywhere else on Earth, if you have 1.8C warming for more than 30 years, this will be off the charts.” Clem said.

But the results are not 100%. So it is possible that warming at the South Pole can occur only through natural processes, according to Clem – but it is small.

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Portuguese historical films will premiere on 29 December.



Portuguese historical films will premiere on 29 December.

Method Media Bermuda will present the documentary FABRIC: Portuguese History in Bermuda on Thursday, December 29 at the Underwater Research Institute of Bermuda.

A spokesperson said: “Method Media is proud to bring Bermuda Fabric: Portugal History to Bermuda for its 5th and 6th showing at the Bermuda Underwater Observatory. In November and December 2019, Cloth: A Portuguese Story in Bermuda had four sold-out screenings. Now that Bermuda has reopened after the pandemic, it’s time to bring the film back for at least two screenings.

“There are tickets For $ 20 – sessions at 15:30 and 18:00. Both screenings will be followed by a short Q&A session.

Director and producer Milton Raboso says, “FABRIC is a definitive account of the Portuguese community in Bermuda and its 151 years of history, but it also places Bermuda, Acors and Portugal in the world history and the events that have fueled those 151 years.

“It took more than 10 years to implement FABRIC. The film was supported by the Minister of Culture, the Government of the Azores and private donors.

Bermuda Media Method [MMB] Created in 2011 by producer Milton Raposo. MMB has created content for a wide range of clients: Bermuda’s new hospital renovation, reinsurance, travel campaigns, international sports and more. MMB pays special attention to artistic, cultural and historical content.

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Maestro de Braga is the first Portuguese in the National Symphony Orchestra of Cuba.



Maestro de Braga is the first Portuguese in the National Symphony Orchestra of Cuba.

Maestro Filipe Cunha, Artistic Director of the Philharmonic Orchestra of Braga, has been invited to conduct the Cuban National Symphony Orchestra, as announced today.

According to a statement sent by O MINHO, “he will be the first Portuguese conductor to conduct this orchestra in its entire history.”

In addition to this orchestra, the maestro will also work with the Lyceo Mozarteum de la Habana Symphony Orchestra.

The concerts will take place on 4 and 12 March 2023 at the National Theater of Cuba in Havana.

In the words of the maestro, quoted in the statement, “these will be very beautiful concerts with difficult but very complex pieces” and therefore he feels “very motivated”.

From the very beginning, Rachmaninoff’s Piano Concerto No. 2 will be performed by an Italian pianist (Luigi Borzillo), whom the maestro wants to bring to Portugal later this year. In the same concert, Mendelshon’s First Symphony will be performed.

Then, at the second concert, in the company of the Mexican clarinetist Angel Zedillo, he will perform the Louis Sfora Concerto No. 2. In this concert, the maestro also conducts Tchaikovsky’s Fifth Symphony.

“This is an international recognition of my work. An invitation that I accept with humility and great responsibility. I was surprised to learn that I would be the first Portuguese member of the Cuban National Symphony Orchestra. This is a very great honor,” the maestro said in a statement.

“I take with me the name of the city of Braga and Portugal with all the responsibility that goes with it, and I hope to do a good job there, leaving a good image and putting on great concerts. These will be very special concerts because, in addition to performing pieces that I love, especially Rachmaninov and Tchaikovsky, I will be directing two wonderful soloists who are also my friends. It will be very beautiful,” concludes Filipe Cunha.

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