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Some neck gaiters may well be even worse than not donning a mask at all, research displays



Some neck gaiters may be worse than not wearing a mask at all, study shows

Applying slim, stretchy neck gaiters as a confront covering might be ineffective at stopping the unfold of the coronavirus, and could even spread the virus more than not putting on a masking at all, in accordance to a new examine. Researchers from Duke University uncovered that the neck gaiter they analyzed was “even worse than practically nothing.” 

“The neck gaiter that we examined did in essence absolutely nothing, and worse than absolutely nothing, simply because it appeared to make significant droplets into compact droplets,” Isaac Henrion, the study’s co-writer, advised CBS Information. Henrion is also the coordinator of Address Durham, a local community undertaking to distribute tens of hundreds of masks to susceptible people.

The experiment involved only a compact range of speakers and confront coverings, and the researchers stressed that much more screening is required — some gaiters might get the job done far better than other individuals, depending on how they’re created.

The neck gaiter is a round piece of cloth that sits around a person’s neck and can be pulled up to deal with their mouth and nose. The difficulty with the easy cover-up is possible not with its structure, but with the cloth it is normally produced from. 

In accordance to Henrion, the examine analyzed a neck gaiter manufactured of a slender, stretchy polyester, which is a commonly offered type. Rather of halting droplets that can incorporate the virus from escaping into the air, the material appeared to turn significant droplets into smaller ones recognized as aerosols. 

An worker carrying a experience-masking walks as a result of the concourse at Waterloo Station in London on June 15, 2020.

Niklas Halle’n / Getty

Aerosols are microscopic droplets that are manufactured when individuals cough, sneeze or converse, but they do not fall to the ground in the identical way more substantial, obvious droplets do. Henrion described an aerosol’s path like that of a paper plane traveling by means of the air and having caught on currents that are invisible to the bare eye. 

“They are definitely small, they are truly invisible, they’re buoyant, they don’t slide to the floor, gravity would not act on them,” Kimberly Prather, distinguished chair in atmospheric chemistry at UC San Diego and an professional on aerosols, advised CBS Information chief professional medical correspondent Dr. Jonathan LaPook in June. 

“And so when (aerosols are) introduced by another person who’s infected, would not know it, and is talking in a room, they can just develop up in a place around time and whoever’s in that place can inhale these and turn into contaminated,” in accordance to Prather.

The risk of generating aerosol droplets is that it truly is harder to defend ourselves from aerosols than from larger sized droplets. 

“If you inhale little aerosols, those people go deep into your lungs and can bypass your immune procedure … which is why you never have symptoms [at first],” Prather spelled out. “The virus just usually takes off and your entire body is underneath assault, and you really don’t know it for five days right up until it grows up in your upper respiratory tract, then it triggers your immune system, and then you have signs and symptoms.”

“Aerosols are increasingly thought of to be a main resource of transmission, specially in unventilated and crowded areas where a powerful focus can establish up more than time,” in accordance to Henrion. The extent to which aerosols may perhaps have the coronavirus is nevertheless becoming researched, but evidence indicates they perform a position.

Study: Multi-layer experience masks function superior


Duke’s study focused on droplet generation while speaking, as opposed to coughing or sneezing, since investigate has demonstrated that a lot more than 50 percent the men and women infected with COVID-19 do not have signs and symptoms, and as a result are usually not coughing or sneezing, in accordance to Henrion.

“Chatting really is the way that asymptomatic transmission comes about,” he claimed. 

Dr. Neeta Ogden informed CBSN on Wednesday that various coronavirus outbreaks, including these amongst travellers on the Diamond Princess cruise ship, in Boston’s homeless inhabitants and the staff at a Tyson poultry manufacturing facility, took place when “there was a higher level of an infection and a great proportion of men and women who ended up asymptomatic.”

World wide coronavirus infections have doubled in just 6 months and climbed previous 20 million, in accordance to info from Johns Hopkins College. Far more than half of those favourable situations arrive from just a few nations around the world: the United States, Brazil and India. Considering the fact that the to start with scenarios have been detected in the U.S. in January, much more than 5 million Us citizens have been identified and extra than 165,000 have died. 

Henrion mentioned that nations wherever a significant share of the populace wears masks were being capable to cease group transmission. 

“The evidence now from many fields is overwhelmingly that masks do the job,” he stated. 

While the study did not established out to create a definitive rating of masks, Henrion said that N95 and common surgical masks produced the the very least quantity of droplets. N95s yielded the best outcomes, and surgical masks arrived in 2nd, halting 90-95% of droplets. Simple two-layer cotton masks had been effective at halting 80% of droplets from receiving out when members spoke. 

As for neck gaiters, Henrion pressured that the study was preliminary, and did not conclusively determine whether or not a gaiter’s material or building was responsible for manufacturing scaled-down droplets. A neck gaiter with two levels of cotton could be much more efficient.

Without simple accessibility to PPE, several folks have turned to making their own masks. The research showed that homemade variations can be productive, but folks really should be mindful of their mask construction and match. 

“Even more exploration is desired to examine the functionality of bandanas and neck gaiters, due to the fact our study is only a evidence of concept for the experimental system,” Henrion explained.

Martin Fischer, an associate exploration professor in Duke’s chemistry office who took section in the research, explained to WRAL-Television it was not intended to fee various confront coverings, introducing that “Not all … neck gaiters are bad. There are plenty superior types out there. It depends so a lot on the substance, on how many levels you wear.”

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Portuguese historical films will premiere on 29 December.



Portuguese historical films will premiere on 29 December.

Method Media Bermuda will present the documentary FABRIC: Portuguese History in Bermuda on Thursday, December 29 at the Underwater Research Institute of Bermuda.

A spokesperson said: “Method Media is proud to bring Bermuda Fabric: Portugal History to Bermuda for its 5th and 6th showing at the Bermuda Underwater Observatory. In November and December 2019, Cloth: A Portuguese Story in Bermuda had four sold-out screenings. Now that Bermuda has reopened after the pandemic, it’s time to bring the film back for at least two screenings.

“There are tickets For $ 20 – sessions at 15:30 and 18:00. Both screenings will be followed by a short Q&A session.

Director and producer Milton Raboso says, “FABRIC is a definitive account of the Portuguese community in Bermuda and its 151 years of history, but it also places Bermuda, Acors and Portugal in the world history and the events that have fueled those 151 years.

“It took more than 10 years to implement FABRIC. The film was supported by the Minister of Culture, the Government of the Azores and private donors.

Bermuda Media Method [MMB] Created in 2011 by producer Milton Raposo. MMB has created content for a wide range of clients: Bermuda’s new hospital renovation, reinsurance, travel campaigns, international sports and more. MMB pays special attention to artistic, cultural and historical content.

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Maestro de Braga is the first Portuguese in the National Symphony Orchestra of Cuba.



Maestro de Braga is the first Portuguese in the National Symphony Orchestra of Cuba.

Maestro Filipe Cunha, Artistic Director of the Philharmonic Orchestra of Braga, has been invited to conduct the Cuban National Symphony Orchestra, as announced today.

According to a statement sent by O MINHO, “he will be the first Portuguese conductor to conduct this orchestra in its entire history.”

In addition to this orchestra, the maestro will also work with the Lyceo Mozarteum de la Habana Symphony Orchestra.

The concerts will take place on 4 and 12 March 2023 at the National Theater of Cuba in Havana.

In the words of the maestro, quoted in the statement, “these will be very beautiful concerts with difficult but very complex pieces” and therefore he feels “very motivated”.

From the very beginning, Rachmaninoff’s Piano Concerto No. 2 will be performed by an Italian pianist (Luigi Borzillo), whom the maestro wants to bring to Portugal later this year. In the same concert, Mendelshon’s First Symphony will be performed.

Then, at the second concert, in the company of the Mexican clarinetist Angel Zedillo, he will perform the Louis Sfora Concerto No. 2. In this concert, the maestro also conducts Tchaikovsky’s Fifth Symphony.

“This is an international recognition of my work. An invitation that I accept with humility and great responsibility. I was surprised to learn that I would be the first Portuguese member of the Cuban National Symphony Orchestra. This is a very great honor,” the maestro said in a statement.

“I take with me the name of the city of Braga and Portugal with all the responsibility that goes with it, and I hope to do a good job there, leaving a good image and putting on great concerts. These will be very special concerts because, in addition to performing pieces that I love, especially Rachmaninov and Tchaikovsky, I will be directing two wonderful soloists who are also my friends. It will be very beautiful,” concludes Filipe Cunha.

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