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Built over 100 years ago, it has only now been opened to the public. This tunnel goes through Niagara Falls

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A whitewater prodigy that has been visited by everyone from Marilyn Monroe to Mark Twain, Niagara Falls has been attracting travelers from all over the world for at least two centuries. But until now, a huge tunnel, hidden in the depths of the waterfall, was inaccessible to visitors.

Rocks under a giant triple waterfall that crosses the interstate line New York and province Canadian Ontario is riddled with chambers dug to harness the mighty forces of nature that rage above them.

And now, the 670-meter tunnel, built over a century ago on the Canadian side, is open to the public to show the staggering scale of these engineering marvels.

As of July 2022, it is part of a visit to the decommissioned Niagara Parks power plant that began a year earlier. Studying it offers a fascinating glimpse into this groundbreaking work that helped bring this corner of North America into the modern era.

The power plant, which operated from 1905 to 2006, diverted water from the mighty Niagara River to power giant generators that electrified regional industries and helped Buffalo’s nearby Great Lakes port become known as the City of Light.

The area around the waterfall, according to the head of the plant, Elena Zorich, was once the center of activity for entrepreneurs interested in profiting from the exploitation of hydroelectric power.

The Adams hydroelectric plant was the first to open, operating on the American side from 1895 to 1961. On the Canadian side, the Ontario Power Company operated from 1905 to 1999 and the Toronto Power Station from 1906 to 1974.

Camouflaged architecture

The 670-meter tunnel was carved into the rock over a century ago (Image

Niagara parks)

At present, the Niagara Park Power Plant is the world’s only completely intact hydroelectric power plant of its time. Originally operated by Canada’s Niagara Power Company, it used Westinghouse generators to create alternating current patented by inventor Nikola Tesla, cutting-edge technology at the time.

The plant, as the tour guide Zoric explained to the visitors, was built at a time when aesthetics prevailed. Its rustic limestone façade and blue tiles were an attempt by New York architect Algernon S. Bell to integrate the structure with the waterfall, she says.

Before entering the tunnel, factory visitors are shown a scale model of the impressive engineering structures used to convert turbulent waters into electricity.

Cylindrical blue generators converted the power of water into electricity (Image

Niagara parks)

Zorich shows where the water entered, where it flowed along an axis to power turbines, and where it followed a tunnel to a drop point at the foot of the Horseshoe Falls, the largest of Niagara’s three falls.

Marcelo Gruosso, senior director of design and operations at the Niagara Parks Commission, has been involved with the project since its inception in 2017.

“The plant started with two generators, and around 1924 all 11 that we see here today were installed,” he says, walking across the high-ceilinged room to point out a row of blue cylindrical generators taking up space.

“Next to each generator was a “regulator” that regulated the water supply to the turbine. An air brake on the regulator helped regulate the flow. It took exactly 250 rpm to get 25 hertz.”

unique non-gendered

The tunnel once held up to 270,000 liters of water moving at 9 meters per second (Niagara Parks Image)

A glass elevator takes visitors to a depth of 55 meters, passing through six levels of infrastructure needed to generate hydroelectric power. At the bottom of the tunnel, through which the water came out.

The tunnel, almost eight meters high and six meters wide, is also a unique historical landmark and is included in the price of the entrance ticket to the power plant.

“It took thousands of workers four years to dig the shale under the main generator room using flashlights, dynamite, picks and shovels,” says Gruosso.

“On the way down, the water caused the turbine blades to spin,” says Gruosso. “They were connected to a 41 meter long shaft that reached the main floor and caused the generator rotor to rotate, generating alternating current.”

Walking down the arched passage of the tunnel, he points to white chalk marks that almost reach the top of the vaulted brick walls.

“You can see the height that the water reaches,” he says. “The tunnel contained 270,000 liters of water, which moved at a speed of nine meters per second.”

But like a fortress, the gently curving tunnel consists of four layers of brick and 46 centimeters of concrete surrounded by slate.

“It’s amazing how they could do without electricity,” says Gruosso.

“We repaired the brick a bit and added bracing to the arch to keep the structure intact, but it is in excellent condition. It has only been serviced twice since it was built, once in the 50s and once in the 90s.”

unique look

Visitors can now step onto the platform and admire Niagara Falls (Image by Niagara Parks).

Toward the end of the tunnel, the space begins to fill with roar. And natural light pours in, as the path leads to a 20-meter observation deck, at river level, almost at the foot of the Ferradura waterfall. Gruosso has to shout to be heard over the incessant roar.

“Here the water from the tunnel poured into the river. This is the best place to see the waterfalls.”

The platform also offers visitors a high vantage point from which to watch tour boats filled with raincoat-clad passengers bobbing like cork plugs at the base of the falls.

To round out the experience at the power plant, there’s an evening show called “Currents: Niagara’s Power Transformed.” This light and sound experience traces the history of the plant, including 3D projections of bubbling water, turbines and electrical sparks.

It takes about two hours to visit the power plant and the tunnel, but staying overnight is recommended to watch the night show. Accommodation ranges from luxury hotels overlooking the falls like the Hilton to budget establishments like the Days Inn.

As for dining, Niagara Falls was once a place exclusively for hot dogs and french fries. O fast food remains, but fate has raised its level. There are menus available cook based on local produce at Niagara Park venues including Table Rock House and independent restaurants such as AG with home grown produce.

Also worth visiting is Niagara Boulevard, which runs along the Niagara River and can be explored on foot or on a rented bike. Stops along the route include the Whirlpool Lookout and the Sir Adam Beck Power Plant, a monolithic waterfront structure currently contributing to the Southern Ontario power grid.

A trip to Niagara Falls is energizing in many ways. It is a place of natural beauty, but it can make us think about the natural forces that continue to shape our lives in modern times.

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Spain: it is already known where the trap envelopes were sent

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The Spanish police claim that six trap parcels that arrived at diplomatic missions and ministries were sent from the city of Valladolid.

Despite the established origin, the authorities still don’t know who’s to blamesince the letters will be placed in regular mailboxes.

The first evidence of the investigation is related to only one of the six packages was able to be deactivated without damage🇧🇷 These are homemade devices with powder charges. The police managed to carry out controlled explosions in four devices.

In the period from November 24 to December 2, parcels with pyrotechnic materials arrived at the diplomatic missions of Ukraine and the United States, the Ministry of Defense and in the office of Prime Minister Pedro Sanchez.

Meanwhile, the security of public buildings, government and embassies strengthens🇧🇷 Despite the written bombs sent out, the authorities decided that it was not worth raising the level of terrorist threat.

On Friday, Spain’s interior minister recommended to the European Commission and partner countries take action if they received such trap letters with the recognition of their possible attitude towards the war in Ukraine.

The advice was accepted by Portuguese diplomacy, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs sent Portuguese embassies to increase caution when receiving mail.

The MNE of Portugal acknowledged that a circular with recommendations was sent to the Portuguese missions and embassies, but chose not to give further details about the proceduresciting security concerns.

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Qatar treats Santos Silva better than Marcelo

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Joao Sena

In Doha, Augusto Santos Silva guaranteed that there would be no problems between Portugal and Qatar. “The two countries have tense diplomatic relations. Qatar is one of the Gulf states where we have a permanent ambassador and it is a strategic region for us,” said the second representative of the Portuguese state. And he also mentioned that there are several points that “should not be forgotten” in order to maintain good bilateral relations. Referring to his experience as Minister of Foreign Affairs, he recalled two facts: “First, it is that, unfortunately, the former Portuguese Ambassador to Qatar, Ricardo Prachana, died in office and the support provided by the Qatari authorities was unsurpassed. (…) Second fact [foi] when we had to remove dozens of people from Afghanistan, namely Afghans who collaborated with the Portuguese armed forces, in a very difficult operation. We did this because we had Pakistan’s support on the ground route and Qatar’s support on the air route.” Santos Silva’s agreement with the Qatari authorities goes even further when he praises “the very clear position that Qatar has taken in the United Nations General Assembly condemning the war against Ukraine and the importance of the geopolitical and geo-economic perspective that this region has in the world today.”

moderate speech pleases

Santos Silva’s statements clearly show more cordiality compared to the speeches of Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa and António Costa (the so-called “hostile”), as well as the subsequent human rights narrative that has rattled the Qatari government to, as reported by Nascer do SOL in its latest issue, admitting that he blacklisted the country as soon as the World Cup is over, the same is happening with Germany, Denmark and France, which have followed the same type of discourse.

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Diplomatic efforts by Santos Silva appear to have helped mitigate the damage caused by the statements of Marcelo Rebelo de Souza, who at the Doha conference refocused on human rights violations, knowing that previous statements were considered “hostile”. ‘ by the Government of Qatar. The diplomatic corps immediately took action at the Palacio das Necessidades and in Doha to prevent the situation from escalating. A Portuguese delegation was sent to Qatar to ensure that Santos Silva’s trip would not bring more problems to Portugal and that the diplomatic calculation would have no repercussions.

In addition to his presence at the stadium to watch Portugal play, the President of the Assembly of the Republic met with the Qatari authorities, where “all matters of interest to both Portugal and Qatar” were considered. Homework was done well and Santos Silva was awarded state awards. He was met at the airport by Deputy Prime Minister Mohammed bin Abdulrahman Al Thani and stayed at a hotel reserved exclusively for heads of state (instead of the Banyan Tree Hotel reserved for vice presidents and chairmen of parliaments). an attitude very different from that given to the President of the Republic during his visit to Qatar, as he was received by the daughter of the Sheikh of the Emirate, who was at the stadium in her private box without receiving the Portuguese head. The Qataris seem to know how to forgive but not forget.

Western hypocrisy

On the subject of human rights in Qatar, Angelo Correia, a former interior minister (de Cavaco Silva), believes this is “hypocrisy and a Western superiority complex.” Speaking to Nascer do SOL, the analyst and political commentator added that the West is “punishing itself for its past mistakes regarding the barbaric colonization of some countries in this region, while at the same time assuming the supremacy of the present as if nothing had happened in the past. In Europe there is a contradiction between sinning excess in this matter and showing superiority over those who are not yet on their way. This is an ambiguous, pompous and contradictory attitude.” But the political class is also responsible: “Portugal’s position towards Qatar left much to be desired in some circumstances, and some people and some parties showed a certain opportunism. There are currently two problems that elude the Portuguese democratic reality: the lack of memory and then the strong agitation for political correctness.”

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Relations between Portugal and Qatar have entered a less tense phase and the presence of Ana Catarina Méndez, Deputy Minister for Parliamentary Affairs who replaced the Prime Minister, who canceled her trip for health reasons, in yesterday’s game in which Portugal lost to South Korea (1-2) an example of this. “This is the day we should all unite with the colors of Portugal, the colors of an open, modern and inclusive society that I am proud to represent,” he told Lusa.

António Costa is expected to go to the Round of 16 game on Tuesday and if the national team continues to compete, with Santos Silva reaching the quarter-finals and Marcelo Rebelo de Souza reaching the semi-finals, then… But one thing is for sure: an agreement is needed. official discourse so that the country is not blacklisted by the emirate.



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“Insidious wave” killed a passenger and injured four people during a cruise

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UOne person died and four were injured after a giant wave hit a cruise ship in Antarctica on Wednesday during a storm.

The cruise was bound for Ushuaia, Argentina – the main starting point for expeditions to Antarctica – when the “killer wave incident” occurred, according to a report by cruise line Viking Polaris quoted by CBS News this Friday.

“It is with great sadness that we confirm that a passenger has died as a result of the incident,” Viking Polaris said, noting that he had notified the victim’s family and expressed his “deepest condolences.”

Four other tourists “suffered non-life-threatening injuries” and were treated on board, the company said.

Speaking to WRAL-TV, Susie Gooding, a passenger on the cruise, said the wave’s impact was so “shocking” that passengers wondered if they had hit an “iceberg”.

“Everything was fine until a killer wave hit us and it happened all of a sudden,” Gooding said, adding that no one knew if “equipment needed to be prepared in order to leave the ship.”

Viking Polaris said it was “investigating facts related to this incident.”

Read also: Madeira is recognized as the “Best Cruise Destination in Europe”.

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