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Gas, oil and gold: where are the largest reserves on the planet?

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Gas, oil and gold: where are the largest reserves on the planet?

“Winter Is Coming.” This is a perverse warning that is constantly coming out of Russia in a threatening tone in response to sanctions imposed to stop the Russian military machine that was moving through neighboring Ukraine on February 24th. And when military power proves ineffective on the ground, energy blackmail becomes Moscow’s main bargaining chip to weaken the West’s firm support for the Kyiv government. Attempts to cut off sources of funding fueling Putin’s imperialist ambitions have forced the Kremlin to shut off the gas valve to Europe.

The situation becomes even more alarming when you consider that the EU controls only 0.2% of the world’s natural gas reserves and that the largest reserves are in the hands of authoritarian regimes. According to the 70th edition of the BP Statistical Review of World Energy, at the end of 2020 Russia is the country with the largest reserves of natural gas, with 37.4 trillion cubic meters, which is equivalent to 19.9% ​​of the global total. In second place is Iran with 32.1 trillion cubic meters (17.1% of all available gas on the planet). This is followed by Qatar with reserves of 24.7 trillion cubic meters, Turkmenistan with 13.6, the United States with 12.6, China with 8.4, Venezuela with 6.3, Saudi Arabia with 6, the United Arab Emirates with 5.9 and, finally, Nigeria with 5.5.

These are the ten countries with the largest reserves of natural gas, seven of which are under the yoke of totalitarian political systems where democracy is a scarce commodity. This is evidenced by The Economist’s Democracy Index 2021, in which Russia, Iran, Qatar, Turkmenistan, China, Venezuela, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates are included in the list of authoritarian regimes. Nigeria is cataloged as a “hybrid regime” and only the US is considered an “imperfect democracy”.

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Among the regions where the largest natural gas reserves are concentrated are the Middle East with 40.3% of the total, the Commonwealth of Independent States, consisting of 11 countries of the former Soviet Union, with 30.1%, Asia and Oceania with 8.8%, North America with 8.1%, Africa with 6.9%, South America with 4.2% and Europe with the remainder of 1.7%.

Another of the detrimental consequences of the war in Ukraine is rising fuel prices, and the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) has decided to cut oil production by 2 million barrels per day from November, which could further drive up prices. . And, again, the countries with the largest oil reserves will benefit from the situation.

On this list, according to the 2019 OPEC Annual Statistical Bulletin, Venezuela leads with reserves of 303.8 billion barrels, followed by Saudi Arabia with 258.6 billion barrels, which is higher than the 208.6 billion barrels that can provide Iran. extraction from its underground deposits. Iraq already has proven oil reserves of 145 billion barrels, Kuwait 101 billion and the United Arab Emirates 97.8 billion. In terms of “black gold” reserves, Russia positions itself as the seventh power (80 billion barrels), which significantly exceeds the 52.6 billion barrels in the hands of the United States. Libya and Nigeria round out the top ten with 48.3 billion and 36.8 billion, respectively. As with natural gas, the largest reserves of crude oil are also found in countries dominated by autocracies, namely Venezuela, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Russia and Libya.

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According to the International Energy Agency, 99.7 million barrels are consumed every day, and a fifth of this amount (20.48 million barrels per day) is in the United States, which is the country most dependent on oil. China and India are the other two oil-based economy giants, with daily consumption of 13.07 million barrels and 4.84 million barrels, respectively. Since Russia is the second largest oil exporter, behind only Saudi Arabia, 48 countries filled the Russian treasury with $123 billion in 2019. $34 billion account. The weight of Russian oil is even more significant in Belarus, Cuba, Kazakhstan and Latvia, where 99% of the oil imported by these countries comes from Russia.

Given the rampant inflation, gold reserves are a guarantee of maintaining financial stability and preventing a loss of purchasing power. And if both gas and oil monopolies belong to autocratic regimes, then gold is much more democratic, as indicated by the data of the World Gold Council for 2020.

The country with the largest gold reserves is by far the United States, with 8,100 tons, double that of the second largest, Germany (3,360 tons). In third place is Italy with 2.45 thousand tons, and the fourth place is occupied by France (2.43 thousand), followed by Russia (2.29 thousand) and China (1.94 thousand). Among the ten largest gold reserves, it can be concluded that seven of them are managed by democratic governments, one (Turkish) is controlled by a “hybrid regime” and only two (Chinese and Russian) are available to authoritarian regimes.

In this list, Portugal has the 13th largest gold reserves in the world and is the fifth EU member state with the largest gold holdings (383 tons), above the United Kingdom with 310 tons and Spain with 282 tons. Language, Portugal is also far above this, as one has to drop to 43rd position to find Brazil with a gold reserve of around 67.4 tons, while Mozambique is in 89th position with only 3.9 tons.

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Here is a portrait of a world that is a treasure trove of various riches, but the poor distribution of resources also turns it into a minefield.

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ITA Airways may be partly in the hands of the Italian state railway

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ITA Airways may be partly in the hands of the Italian state railway


The Italian government is exploring new possibilities for the sale of ITA Airways, which could involve Lufthansa and the national rail company, Ferrovie dello Stato (FS). This is reported by the Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera. Earlier this month, the government announced it would resume talks with Lufthansa after inconclusive talks with a consortium formed by Air France-KLM, Delta Air Lines and Certares.

Lufthansa said last week through a spokesperson that it remains interested in the acquisition. The original partner of the German group, the sea carrier MSC, refused to negotiate.

With FS, the Italian government, along with Lufthansa, has a new takeover candidate for the airline. Reuters news agency reports that government documents show the government wants to sell 51 percent of ITA to Lufthansa for 250 million euros, with 29 percent to go to Ferrovie dello Stato, with the rest remaining in state hands.

With the partial acquisition, ITA FS will be able to use a combination of air and rail transport. Moreover, it already offers high-speed lines connecting the main cities of Italy, the Italian newspaper writes. Cooperation can facilitate the transition to both modes of transport.

Having FS as an airline partner was nothing new, as the state-owned railway was also a shareholder in the bankrupt Alitalia. The difference here is that if there is Lufthansa in the package (if these plans are confirmed), it is the Germans who should have control and will dictate the step of the company, which is unprofitable today.


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Tesla announces another recall of 80,000 vehicles, and some even have to be recalled

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Imagem Tesla recall

Tesla cars suffered this year a large number of requests for “collection”better known as the process revoke🇧🇷 Trouble again and 80,000 vehicles in China will be recalled. If many of recalls was an easy decision as it was over the air (OTA) it really obliges the owners to take the car to the workshop.

In fact, this year, many millions of Tesla electric vehicles received revoke for fixes.

Many of the reviews are related to issues resolved via OTA.

Whenever there is a safety issue, the NHTSA must issue a "safety recall", even if the car manufacturer does not have to physically recall any vehicles, leading to some confusion.

Once again last month, Tesla's "1 Million Vehicles" collection of vehicles generated a lot of news as the impact on drivers was almost negligible considering the update only changed via OTA the software that runs the car system. to work with windows.

These cases have prompted Tesla CEO Elon Musk to complain about the term "recall = collection" and how it is being used in the media against Tesla. Today The American company again announced new collections in China about 80,000 cars.

13,000 Tesla electric vehicles have seat belt problems

The recall includes 67,698 imported Model S and Model X vehicles with a battery-related software issue, according to Chinese authorities. Again, the fix is ​​a simple software update. Nonetheless, this time there is also a physical collection due to the problem with the seat belt in approximately 13,000 Model 3 vehicles: 2,736 imported and 10,127 made in China.

over 20 recalls there were many collections in 2022. However, Tesla is not the only automaker to be hit by major recalls this year. OUR Ford also just confirmed that it is recalling another half a million vehicles. due to fire hazards, and many car manufacturers have also recalled millions of vehicles this year.

In any case, the fact that the vast majority of calls from electric brand a quick fix with over-the-air (OTA) software updates — rather than taking cars back to the dealership like other car manufacturers — shows that Tesla's level of connectivity to its cars is a huge advantage in the industry.

The software update system (OTA) allows the buyer to fix many problems easily and conveniently, and for Tesla itself means big money savings.

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Lidl wants to dominate the fast-charging market for electric vehicles at affordable prices

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Estação de carregamento, no Lidl, aberta 24 horas por dia

One of the EU’s goals for electric vehicles is to guarantee charging points so that tram drivers don’t have to worry about being on the road when they travel. To meet this need and dominate this market, Lidl intends to offer affordable prices.

We may soon see this initiative in more supermarkets.


Despite being a supermarket chain, Lidl has been guaranteeing electric vehicle charging stations in its stores for some time. However, a new journey has now begun, the launch of the first ultra-fast charging station, which has the distinction of guaranteeing a price well below what can be found on the market.

With this new equipment, in addition to the aesthetic aspects, Lidl takes on technical and cost commitments, guaranteeing the best on the market. After all, she not only placed the charger in her supermarkets, but also created, in turn, a space with protection for vehicles, users and chargers, in an area open 24/7 (i.e. 24 hours a day, 7 days in Week). . . .

This provides better visibility of the infrastructure and reduces the risk of internal combustion engine vehicles occupying space reserved for electric vehicles.

Lidl bets on affordable charging points

The first station will be installed in a Lidl supermarket near the French city of Lyon. The space is equipped with five charging points ranging from 22 to 360 kW. Thus, each client will be able to choose the one that best suits his needs.

For example, a 22 kW charger has a competitive cost of 25 cents per kWh. When we move to more powerful stations of 90, 180 or 360 kW, the price becomes 40 cents higher per kWh.

The strategy adopted by Lidl in some of its stores is already rolling out to other countries, such as Germany, where the supermarket chain is installing its first fast-charging stations, with 150kW stations priced at 48 cents per kWh.

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