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What could give modern humans an edge over Neanderthals?

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What could give modern humans an edge over Neanderthals?

By studying fossilized skulls, scientists know that Neanderthal brain size was the same, if not slightly larger, than that of modern humans. However, researchers know little about Neanderthal brain development because soft tissue is poorly preserved in the fossil record.

A fascinating study recently emerged that revealed a possible difference that may have given modern humans, or Homo sapiens, a cognitive advantage over Neanderthals, the Stone Age hominids that lived in Europe and parts of Asia before they went extinct about 40,000 years ago. .

Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics in Dresden, Germany, said they have identified a genetic mutation that caused faster creation of neurons in the Homo sapiens brain. The Neanderthal variant of the gene in question, known as TKTL1, differs from the modern human variant in one amino acid.

“We have identified the gene that makes us human,” said study author Wieland Huttner, professor and emeritus director of the institute.

When two versions of the gene were inserted into mouse embryos, the research team found that the modern human variant of the gene resulted in an increase in a particular type of cell that makes neurons in the neocortex region of the brain. The scientists also tested two variants of the gene in ferret embryos and lab-grown brain tissue made from human stem cells called organoids, with similar results.

The team argued that this ability to produce more neurons likely gave Homo sapiens a cognitive advantage unrelated to overall brain size, suggesting that modern humans have “a more prominent neocortex than ancient Neanderthals,” according to a study published in the journal Science.

“This shows us that although we don’t know how many neurons were in the Neanderthal brain, we can assume that modern humans have more neurons in the frontal lobe of the brain, where TKTL1 activity is higher than in Neanderthals,” Hattner explained.

“There was a discussion about whether the frontal lobe of Neanderthals was as large as that of modern humans,” he added.

“But that doesn’t matter because (from this study) we know that modern humans should have more neurons in the frontal lobe, and we think that’s an advantage when it comes to cognitive ability.”

“premature” opening

Alisson Muotri, professor and director of the UC San Diego Stem Cell Program and Archaealization Center, was not involved in the study, but said that while animal experiments revealed “drastic differences” in neuron production, the difference was more subtle in organoids.

“This has only been done in one cell line, and since we have tremendous variability with this brain organoid protocol, it would be ideal to repeat the experiments with a second cell line,” he said.

It’s also possible that an archaic version of the TKTL1 gene was not unique to Neanderthals, Muotri noted. Most genomic databases focus on Western Europe, and it is possible that human populations in other parts of the world may have a Neanderthal version of this gene.

“I think it’s rather premature to propose a distinction between Neanderthal and modern human cognition,” he said.

More recent archaeological discoveries have shown that Neanderthals were more complex than pop culture depictions (pictorial cavemen) suggest. Our ancient relatives knew how to survive in cold and hot climates and used sophisticated tools. They also wove yarn, swam and made art.

Co-author of the study and geneticist Svante Paabo, director of the Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. Max Planck in Leipzig, Germany, made the first attempt to extract, sequence and analyze ancient DNA from Neanderthal bones.

Their work led to the discovery in 2010 that early humans intermingled with Neanderthals. Subsequently, scientists compared the Neanderthal genome with the genetic records of modern humans to see how our genes overlap and differ: TKTL1 is just one of dozens of identified genetic differences, and some of the common genes may have implications for human health.

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Fan found It A Thing easter egg in GTA 6

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UOL - O melhor conteúdo

New video from YouTube broke recently leaked images Grand Theft Auto 6opening a few Easter eggs in GTA 6 – including a message for the demonic clown Pennywise from book and movie it. After years of hope and speculation Rockstar games finally confirmed that Grand Theft Auto 6 is in development earlier this year.

However, the developer soon made headlines for a completely different reason: in September, a hacker leaked at least 90 GTA 6 videos. This massive leak of information about Grand Theft Auto 6 caused a shock on the Internet and the gaming industry. Take-Two interactive quickly began ordering removal of images on specialized GTA fan forums.

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Rockstar itself condemned the leak, but dispelled fears that it would affect GTA 6’s development after the source code was allegedly stolen during the same hack. Regardless, fans have been scrutinizing the leaked footage since it surfaced last weekend.

These leaks appear to have confirmed previous reports that GTA 6 will have a Vice City setting and a female protagonist, with the footage referencing a Miami stunt double and showing two playable characters – a man named Jason and a woman named Lucia. Beyond story details, these GTA 6 leaks also reveal weapons and combat gameplay, hinting at what Grand Theft Auto took from Rockstar’s latest project. Red Dead Redemption 2.

New quests and Pennywise Easter eggs

O Youtuber strange manrecently posted a new Grand Theft Auto 6 video listing 10 recurring Rockstar Easter Eggs and references that appear to have been confirmed in leaked GTA 6 screenshots. Fans should expect a lot of weird supernatural occurrences in GTA 6 such as UFO sightings and bigfoot return from Grand Theft Auto 5.

On a darker note, some of GTA 6’s new side missions will take players to a satanic house and haunted warehouse. For those looking for a less scary time, players will apparently be able to find another warehouse full of sex robots they can interact with.

The Strange Man video also discusses a side quest in which the player investigates a serial killer targeting strippers, as well as the mystery surrounding a pair of such criminals. Bonnie and Clyde.

Another GTA 6 mission appears to involve a drug dealer from Grand Theft Auto Online, blonde. However, perhaps the most intriguing inclusion is the presence of an eerie voice coming from the sewers, which Odd Man suggests may be a nod to the infamous Pennywise from It, written by Stephen King.

The Grand Theft Auto series is no stranger to pop culture references or its own games. GTA has Easter eggs from red dead redemption vice versa. Many of these hidden details have fans speculating about the upcoming GTA 6 as a secret nod to GTA Online’s Vice City.

Others suggest a common continuity between Grand Theft Auto and Red Dead Redemption: Bigfoot appears in side quests, and the time traveler from RDR2 appears to be connected to GTA’s Epsilon program.

It looks like this tradition will continue in Grand Theft Auto 6, with recent leaks talking about Bigfoot, UFOs, sex robots, ghosts, and even the mention of Pennywise waiting for players. While the circumstances surrounding this new information are unfavorable for the developers and fans of Grand Theft Auto 6, it’s still rewarding to watch dedicated players uncover hidden details and hidden messages in Rockstar’s upcoming open-world crime blockbuster.

Via: Screen Rant/YouTube/Strange Man

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Xiaomi files patent for DSLR-style zoom on mobile phones

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Xiaomi registra patente de zoom estilo DSLR em celulares

Patent dated xiaomi can completely change the structure of the main cameras present in the company’s smartphones. According to the registry, new Xiaomi’s patent is a DLSR-style zoom system.. At the moment, the system will not necessarily be implemented on smartphones, it just shows that the brand’s engineers are investigating this topic.

Patent disclosed by the portal Header Android Can mean an important change in the smartphone segment generally. At first, a phone with a Xiaomi DLSR-style zoom module only needed a rear camera. The lens could move to change the aperture and vary the focal length, similar to professional cameras on the market.

As seen in image above, the patent shows a simple cell phone design with only one rear camera. In any case, there is no guarantee that the company will introduce a new patent in the future. It is common for large companies to file patents and discard ideas over time.

Samsung has already tried to implement a similar system

If it implements a scaling system, Xiaomi will not be the first company in the market to test the solution. Samsung has already tested a similar device with the Galaxy K Zoom, released in 2014, but the cell phone line has sold poorly. Over time, Samsung abandoned this idea, as one of the big problems at the time was that DLSR-style zoom makes the smartphone look thicker and less ergonomic.

Ergonomics of a product is one of the most difficult tasks to please the public. The solution needs a lens capable of many movements, which makes the rear camera module much larger. Although, there is a possibility that Xiaomi is developing a solution to this problem.

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If the company manages to create a single zoom rear camera module capable of performing the functions of a traditional triple module, and at the same time offer a smartphone with a thinner design, Xiaomi could explode the market.


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Source: Header Android

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Wo Long will only have one difficulty mode.

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Wo Long

How about games Nioh previous from Ninja Team, Wo Long it’s a Souls-like game that thrives on challenges. Many gamers later find the games too difficult and inaccessible.

talking to MP1stproducer Masaaki Yamagiva defended the decision Ninja Team maintain difficulty.

Team Ninja Decision with Wo Long

“We think it’s ‘good’ to have a certain amount of difficulty so that everyone has the same experience of overcoming a very big obstacle and everyone has a sense of accomplishment.” these Masaaki Yamagiwa.

“It is very important that the challenge stays the same and gives players different ways to overcome it. Wo Long is not an easy game by any means, but we are working to give players as much freedom and leeway as possible so that they can overcome obstacles in their own way.”

Yamagiva notes that players are given the opportunity to play their own way.

For example, the game features a morale system where players become stronger the more enemies they kill, and then can choose which enemy morale level to face next.

There is also online multiplayer where players can call on friends for help, as well as fight to level up, just like in RPGs.

“We’re really giving players their own ways of dealing with all of these things, which is really important to Wo Long’s game design.”these Yamagiva.

Wo Long: The Fallen Dynasty planned for release next year on consoles Game consoleXbox e PC.

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