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when lack of responsibility is food for a tyrant



Duilia Daliana Ribeiro Santos da Nobrega, Sociologist, Master of Political Science and PhD Candidate in Political Science UFPE. Professor at the Department of Sociology at the State University of Paraiba.

Pedro Nascimentopolitical scientist, M.Sc. in Political Science/UFCG and PhD in Political Science at the Federal University of Pernambuco, where he conducts research in the field of transparency, accountability, democracy and public policy

James Madison (1751-1836), considered the “father” of the United States Constitution, was one of the “Founding Fathers”, was quite assertive when talking about human nature and the consistent failure of man in trying to control himself. According to him, “if people were angels, there would be no need for governments, and if we were ruled by angels, there would be no need for external and internal control.” With the proposal to draft a national constitution, Madison defended the existence of a “checks and balances” structure against the deliberate concentration of power in one government department. Such a balance of power, in spite of this, makes it possible to neutralize the ambition inherent in the human essence in state instances and to delimit the personal interests of statesmen in the face of the predominance of republican virtue.

From this point of view, the ability to control the ruled in a democracy is based on a branched institutional chain, called in the literature accountability horizontal. This expression is widely used in political science (although there is no exact translation into Portuguese) as a synonym for interdepartmental control, represented by administrative and judicial control and, above all, control of the responsibility of the Legislature, when the object of management action is executive. In addition, the term is associated with best practices in internal regulation and transparency in administrative acts.

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Control, in a broad sense, is recognized within public administration as an administrative function that aims to ensure that the activities planned by the government and the results achieved are successful, and also has a legal and moral obligation to prevent and correct any failures. controls that cast a shadow on the integrity of the treasury. In turn, the legislature and auxiliary audit courts, as legally authorized agencies, should play a leading role in accounting, financial, budgetary, operational and property control (CF: article 70). It is a political control that is designed to test the rule of law, legitimacy, the economy, in addition to applying subsidies and forfeiting revenues.

Thus, the legislature is responsible for overseeing the honesty of the actions of the administration and for the conscientious implementation of the budget law. The control dynamics carried out by the parliament follows two models, primarily the control which operates in a preventive manner and, as a rule, operates on the basis of the preliminary opinion of the NTS and the results of the activities of the Financial Inspection and Control Commission (CFFC). This commission is responsible for maintaining the accounts of the President of the Republic, as well as voting on matters relating to the request for information, reports, balances and checks of accounts or expenditure authorizations of the bodies and institutions of the federal administration, directly or through the Court of the Union of Accounts (CF: article 51). According to McCubbins and Schwartz (1984), this type of monitoring is called “police patrol”.

The second dynamic, referred to as “fire alarm”, is associated with selective control, in which the cases under investigation usually have significant public and media coverage. A well-known example of this type of inspection activity is the CPI. According to the authors who first used these analogies, there are some net benefits that may lead the legislator to opt for the second dynamic of executive oversight, namely the time congressmen spend on “police patrol” oversight. much more, since a large number of actions are considered that identify or correct actions of the executive branch, which often do not directly violate the goals of the legislation and do not harm any support base. In addition, media coverage can contribute to electoral victory as it increases the personal visibility of each parliamentarian’s work.

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But how to guarantee effective verification when those who were legally created for this prevail over their political interests?

In Brazil, subjecting the Chief Executive to an audit of public accounts is not an easy task, as those responsible for this audit are usually asked to change their role. responsible for electoral advantages offered by the President. There are several tools for taking into account political interests that are used in relations between the executive and legislative branches, but one of them, in particular, attracts the attention of specialists and the press today: speaker’s amendments or so-called. “RP9”. This mechanism is based on inexplicable: When he uses the transparency of public resources, in practice he undermines the republican character of any democracy.

What we are seeing now is not budget control by the Legislative Assembly, but manipulation to obtain political privileges. According to the reservations signed by TCU in its opinion, in the 2020 LOA, R$ 30.1 billion was allocated for expenses arising from the Rapporteur-General’s amendments, with an authorized distribution of R$ 20.14 billion and an allocated amount reaching R$ 19.74. billion. For FY 2021, TCU draws attention to the fact that R$18.5 billion was originally allocated as RP9 (Rapporteur Amendments), of which R$16.7 billion was allocated and R$6.3 billion paid out. According to data recently published in the Integrated Financial Management System of the Federal Government (Siafi), out of the R$16.5 billion amendments made by the speaker for 2022, R$7.7 billion has already been passed, of which R$6.7 billion has been made. 1.7 billion reais were paid and blocked, which currently amounts to 16,636 spending instructions in eight ministries and 34 actions. Of the total number of requests, 11,026 were written by 381 deputies for a total of R$ 5.7 billion, with the states of Minas Gerais and Bahia the most affected.

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In this context, the Court of Accounts, in its technical opinion, also clarified that the information on parliamentary inquiries that were highlighted through RP9 in LOA did not comply with constitutional law and the STF’s own decision regarding the general rules for transparency of public finances, violating the principles of universality, transparency and compromising the management of the budget. management. Thus, the “secret budget” appears as another little-known chapter in the history of the young Brazilian democracy, a real disrespect for the society of this country.

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Lula heads to political stronghold to launch runoff campaign, Bolsonaro focuses on Minas – Money Times



Lula heads to political stronghold to launch runoff campaign, Bolsonaro focuses on Minas – Money Times
The campaigns actually kick off with travel and street events after the two Planalto candidates focused on getting support in the days after the first round and after the first two polls about the controversy (Image: REUTERS/Ueslei Marcelino).

Against the background of the publication of the first polls for the second round of the presidential election, the ex-president Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva (PT) will launch a new phase of the campaign in its political stronghold, São Bernardo do Campo, and the president and candidate for re-election, Jair Bolsonaro (Poland) concentrate fire on Minas Geraisa key condition in which he lost to Lula on Sunday.

Campaigns actually kick off with travel and street events after the two Planalto candidates focus on getting support in the first days after the first round and after the first two controversy polls.

See the highlights of the election scenario below.

Squid in origins

As at the beginning of the campaign in the first round, Lula begins street activities in this second round of the campaign in São Bernardo do Campo, the city in which he emerged on the national political scene as a labor leader in the 1970s. .

He will run alongside PT’s São Paulo government candidate Fernando Haddad, who got a surprise win on Sunday, losing to Bolsonaro candidate Tarcisio Gomes de Freitas (R-P), his runoff rival in the state.

Bolsonaro to Minas

As at the start of the first round of the campaign in August, the re-election candidate will hold its first campaign event in this new phase in Minas after securing the support of the state’s re-elected governor. Romeo Zema (New).

Minas was the only state in the southeast region where Lula defeated Bolsonaro on Sunday. The PT had 48.29% of the actual votes of Minas Gerais voters, while the candidate for re-election had 43.60%, 563,000 more votes than the former president.

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The state is seen as fundamental to Bolsonaro’s intentions to change the situation. After the redemocratization, all elected presidents received the largest number of votes in Minas.

first search

On Wednesday, Ipec published the first poll for the second round of the presidential election and showed that Lula has 51% of the vote against 43% for Bolsonaro.

This Thursday morning poll PoderData showed a tougher dispute: Lula with 48% and Bolsonaro with 44%.

On Thursday afternoon, the first Genial/Quaest poll for the second round of the presidential election will be released.

Research institutes have been criticized since Sunday for underestimating Bolsonaro’s electoral votes in polls released on Saturday. Lula won the first round with 48.43% of the valid votes against 43.20% for the incumbent.

Genial/Quaest – Thursday, October 6
Datafolha – October 7, Friday
Ipec – October 10, second fair
Ipespe – October 11, Tuesday
LATEST Published Polls
Released October 6
Margin of error: 1.8 percentage points.
Lula (Portugal): 48%
Bolsonaro (Poland): 44%
Spaces and zeros: 6%
Undecided: 2%
Released October 5]
Accuracy: 2 percentage points
Lula (Portugal): 51%
Bolsonaro (Poland): 43%
Spaces and zeros: 4%
Undecided: 2%

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Rubric: Politicians and politicians – Assembly with 16 newbies



Rubric: Politicians and politicians - In 2002 the best voice

Of the 40 state deputies elected on Sunday (2), 16 will be elected to the first term in the legislature. Another 24 were re-elected. Of the 16 newcomers, two have already come on as substitutes: Carlos Humberto (Poland) for 60 days in 2020 and Pepe Kollas (PR) who was in the Assembly for the same time in 2022.

first election

Four of the 16 newcomers have never held elective office: Mario Motta (PSD), Egidio Ferrari (PTB), Matheus Cadorin (Novo) and Sergio Guimarães (Unian). For the first time, PL will have the largest bench with 11 seats. Since 1982, only MDB and PP had such benches.

MDB is compressed

The MBR elected six deputies, it had 9; PT won four out of 40 vacancies. Psol and Novo elected state deputies for the first time. Both parties already had parliamentarians in the House of Representatives, but elected by other acronyms who, already in power, migrated to Psol and Novo.


* The MDB made six state deputies (from nine) and kept the three federal representatives it already had. But he leaves the October election in disbelief. With no gubernatorial candidate and with groups divided between supporters of Carlos Moises (Republicans) and Jorginho Mello (PL), the polls even killed the party’s president, Federal MP Celso Maldaner, now without a mandate.

* The MDB has been the home of arrogant and outdated politicians for decades. Leadership does not grow in their shadow. Former mayor Antidio Lunelli, now an MP with 76,000 votes, is a more recent example. In order to survive on its own feet, the parties will have to reorganize, but for this it is necessary to sweep all patterns out of the executive branch.

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*This is the same for PP, PSDB, PT and PSD. With all due respect, the rest of the existing parties in the SC are the “New People” rice parties are always welcome in an election year, but carry stones. And stay there.

*Over time: PSD and MDB tend to support Jorginho Mello (PL) in the second round. PSDB has already joined. This is the current voice behind the scenes that the Republicans, the party of Moses, are going to support Jorginho Mello! The announcement will be made by the party’s president and re-elected state deputy, Sergio Motta. At the national level, Republicans support Bolsonaro.

*At the national level, the MDB is in a difficult position. Senator Simona Tebet, who garnered a meager 4.9 million votes but is still ahead of loudmouth Ciro Gomes (PDT), is showing signs of support for Lula da Silva (PT), but that’s personal. The executive branch must “free” state catalogs.

* The PRB Federal MP in 2018, who received 179,000 votes (the most voted out of 16 federal elected this year) and unfurled the Bolsonarist flag, Hélio Costa (PSD) has now garnered a measly 18,000 votes. Even with almost 1.5 million reais from the Electoral Fund. The average cost is 84 reais per vote. explains Freud?

* Arlindo Rincos (União Brasil) was one of the few state candidates nominated in Jaragua do Sul. From the party fund, which maintains party directories throughout the year (and is also used in election campaigns), 600,000 reais were received. He received 1623 votes. The average cost is BRL 370.00 per vote. explains Freud?

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last call

Scheduled for a runoff against PT Decio Lima, Senator Jorginho Mello (PL) and businessman and political activist Luciano Hagn are already planning a new visit by Jair Bolsonaro (PL) to the state. They assume it will be the lime shovel in Lima’s claim. And no less. In Joinville, Mello received 151,000 votes, in Blumenau, the PT candidate’s base of votes, 85,000 votes (Lima received 33,000) and in Florianopolis 68,000 votes. In “Capital”, Mello lost to Lima, who earned 75 thousand.

Influence of presidential candidates

There are irrefutable reflections on the visit of Lula da Silva in September (Florianopolis) and Bolsonaro on October 1 (Joinville). Mello advances to the second round with a huge lead of 1.5 million votes over Lima with 710,000 votes.

cousins ​​in cell

Julia Zanata (PL), who was elected as a federal deputy and had support in Jaragua do Sul and the region, and Ricardo Guidi (PSD), who was re-elected as a federal deputy, come from Crisiuma. And what’s more, cousins ​​from families that get along too well.

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Fake news dampens political and election debate, Saretta says



Fake news dampens political and election debate, Saretta says

Congressman Neody Saretta (PT) said this Wednesday (5th) in the Legislative Assembly (Alesc) that the dissemination of information that attempts to sway voters to lie, so-called fake news, is eclipsing pre-election and political debate. “We can’t just keep discussing recruitment, I don’t know what, we have to look at the reality of people who are suffering and hardworking and who are sometimes misled by some kind of false news.”

He recalled how strongly the system and electoral justice were attacked, but despite speculation and mistrust, “the system worked, people voted for whom they wanted, polling stations opened and votes appeared there, as a citizen contributed. ”

According to him, in the second round we will have the opportunity to really discuss the proposals. “Our candidate Desio Lima did well in the elections when he got through to the second round and I’m sure he will take part in the debate about what’s best for SC and our municipalities.”

The MP said that politicians have a mission to work to improve people’s lives and that much remains to be done. “We have people who cannot afford to buy their own food, who are squeezing their salaries from everywhere to get through the month. There are many people who need more effective action from our governments.”

He hopes that the second round will discuss what is best for the population, its conditions and quality of life, “so that the state can guarantee people more services and have a larger share of the national pie, since so much is collected and little is returned.”

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Saretta thanked the people of Santa Catarina who believed and supported her candidacy, which allowed her to remain in the Assembly for another four years and continue the work that she is doing. “I thank those who participated in the electoral process, correctly, with dignity, as it should be,” he said.

According to him, walking around Santa Catarina and talking with the population during the action, many did not understand how the state fund has free resources and people continue to wait two or three years for admission, surgery, medical care. “Karma that cannot last,” he commented.

Similarly, while traveling on the roads, whether federal or state highways, the MP was reminded of the appalling traffic conditions that put those who work with their trucks, transport goods, as well as those who travel with their family or go on foot, at risk.

“Santa Catarina needs to take a closer look at these health and infrastructure issues. I defended it and took it as a real flag of life, because I understand that the key to any government is to serve the people, and health should come first.

Saretta drew attention to the problem of huge social inequality, which depends on the actions of the federal government, which cannot turn its back on those who have the least, those who need it most. “The population cannot be prejudiced against immigrant brothers, almost all of us are immigrants in one way or another, from the present or from the past, and we, unfortunately, see the spread of discriminatory ideas when we are all equal people.”

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Juliana Wilke
Collective consulting | Bench for physical education in Alesc | 48 3221 2824 [email protected]Twitter: @PTnoparlamento | Facebook: PT without Parliament

Source: Agency ALESC – Offices

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