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political protagonist D. Pedro I in the formation of Brazil as a nation



published on 21.08.2022 06:00

(credit: Waldo Virgo)

Who knows where the Rua D. Pedro I in Rio de Janeiro, the city that welcomed the young prince in exile in 1808, wins the pastel de Belen and made him the first emperor of Brazil on the eve of his 24th birthday. September 7, 1822. Pedro de Alcantara Francisco António João Carlos Xavier de Paula Miguel Rafael Joaquim José Gonzaga Pascual Cipriano Seraphim de Braganza i Bourbon was the heir to the Portuguese royal house, the son of King João VI, regent of Portugal, and a Spanish princess. Carlota Joaquina, who became King and Queen of Portugal in 1816 after the death of Queen Mary I.

His political role in the rise of Brazil as a nation cannot be ignored during the celebrations of the bicentenary of independence. To this end, the heart of D. Pedro I will arrive in Brazil tomorrow and will be displayed at the Itamaraty Palace in Brasilia at the climax of the official celebration of the bicentenary of independence.

The big date will also serve to host major demonstrations in support of President Jair Bolsonaro and his re-election project; the national unity and social cohesion of our country is out of the question. This form of memory deserves critical reflection because it symbolizes the theft of national identity and our future by President Jair Bolsonaro for electoral and regressive purposes.

Almost a ready-made joke, the painfulness of programming reinforces the idea that we live in a time of “necropolitics”. Negotiations to lease the heart lasted about four months, involving the Portuguese government, the Chamber of Porto and representatives of Irmandade da Lapa, the religious organization that guards the relic. Stored in a glass pot, immersed in a golden substance, the heart of D. Pedro will be received at the Planalto Palace with honors of the head of state, cannon volleys and accompanied by the Dragons of Independence; after that, it will be put on public display in the Itamaraty Palace.

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Until the beginning of 1821, D. Juan VI kept D. Pedro from politics. After the liberal revolution in Porto, he was forced to return to Lisbon and left him as Prince Regent of Brazil. This action caused him to assume political leadership, becoming the leader of the Independence in opposition to the Portuguese courts, which demanded his return to the country. On January 9, 1822, D. Pedro announced his stay in Brazil, and this event became known as Dia do Fico.

Since then, the process of rupture has accelerated, and the hostility between Brazil and Portugal has intensified. On September 7, 1822, Don Pedro was on a trip to São Paulo, and on his way from Santos to São Paulo, near the Ipiranga stream, he received a letter signed by his wife and José Bonifacio, his personal adviser, with new orders sent by Portugal . D. Pedro took advantage of the situation to declare independence. December 1, 1822 D. Pedro was crowned emperor.


Unlike all other countries in the Americas that became republican after independence—with the exception of Mexico, which had three very short empires—Brazil chose a monarchy that bequeathed to us a historical state and our territorial integrity, although the nation was still a project under construction. . The meaning of the existence of our monarchy was more connected with the preservation of slavery and the project of reunification of the Portuguese colonial empire, the personification of which was to be D. Pedro I himself.

His authoritarianism and intransigence led to a series of crises that marked the First Reign. D. Pedro closed the Constituent Assembly of 1823, tore up the so-called cassava constitution, and gave us the liberal constitution of 1924, in which the right to private property was introduced for the express purpose of protecting slavery.

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The dissatisfaction was enormous. In the northeast, this gave rise to a separatist rebellion, the Confederation of Ecuador. D. Pedro I decided to declare war on the United Provinces because of the ongoing rebellion in Cisplatina. The war affected the Brazilian economy and led to the independence of Uruguay. The defeat crippled the popularity of D. Pedro, who lost support from the military and the poor. The murder of the hardline Italian journalist Libero Badaro in São Paulo in November 1930 made the situation unacceptable.

D. Pedro I was accused of defending the murderers of a journalist, and in March 1831 a confrontation broke out on the streets of Rio de Janeiro between his supporters and critics. Noite das Garrafadas forced him to step down on April 7, 1831. so that his son, Pedro de Alcantara, could take over when he turned 18.

In 1831, D. Pedro I moved to Portugal in order to participate in the civil war in Portugal and protect the right of his daughter, D. Maria II, to the throne of the country. He fought against his brother D. Miguel for the throne and won this conflict. Maria was restored to the throne of Portugal in 1834, and D. Miguel fled into exile. During the war, D. Pedro I fell ill with tuberculosis, the disease worsened and led to his death on September 24, 1834.

However, in Brazil, the turbulent period of regency that followed the abdication of D. Pedro I and up to the coup of the majority of D. Pedro II in 1940 was of fundamental importance for the consolidation of the Union and for the seeds of our federalism to be fixed in the Brazilian Parliament and in it, on the other hand , the culture of reconciliation of our elites. D. Pedro never regained his popularity.

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Lula heads to political stronghold to launch runoff campaign, Bolsonaro focuses on Minas – Money Times



Lula heads to political stronghold to launch runoff campaign, Bolsonaro focuses on Minas – Money Times
The campaigns actually kick off with travel and street events after the two Planalto candidates focused on getting support in the days after the first round and after the first two polls about the controversy (Image: REUTERS/Ueslei Marcelino).

Against the background of the publication of the first polls for the second round of the presidential election, the ex-president Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva (PT) will launch a new phase of the campaign in its political stronghold, São Bernardo do Campo, and the president and candidate for re-election, Jair Bolsonaro (Poland) concentrate fire on Minas Geraisa key condition in which he lost to Lula on Sunday.

Campaigns actually kick off with travel and street events after the two Planalto candidates focus on getting support in the first days after the first round and after the first two controversy polls.

See the highlights of the election scenario below.

Squid in origins

As at the beginning of the campaign in the first round, Lula begins street activities in this second round of the campaign in São Bernardo do Campo, the city in which he emerged on the national political scene as a labor leader in the 1970s. .

He will run alongside PT’s São Paulo government candidate Fernando Haddad, who got a surprise win on Sunday, losing to Bolsonaro candidate Tarcisio Gomes de Freitas (R-P), his runoff rival in the state.

Bolsonaro to Minas

As at the start of the first round of the campaign in August, the re-election candidate will hold its first campaign event in this new phase in Minas after securing the support of the state’s re-elected governor. Romeo Zema (New).

Minas was the only state in the southeast region where Lula defeated Bolsonaro on Sunday. The PT had 48.29% of the actual votes of Minas Gerais voters, while the candidate for re-election had 43.60%, 563,000 more votes than the former president.

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The state is seen as fundamental to Bolsonaro’s intentions to change the situation. After the redemocratization, all elected presidents received the largest number of votes in Minas.

first search

On Wednesday, Ipec published the first poll for the second round of the presidential election and showed that Lula has 51% of the vote against 43% for Bolsonaro.

This Thursday morning poll PoderData showed a tougher dispute: Lula with 48% and Bolsonaro with 44%.

On Thursday afternoon, the first Genial/Quaest poll for the second round of the presidential election will be released.

Research institutes have been criticized since Sunday for underestimating Bolsonaro’s electoral votes in polls released on Saturday. Lula won the first round with 48.43% of the valid votes against 43.20% for the incumbent.

Genial/Quaest – Thursday, October 6
Datafolha – October 7, Friday
Ipec – October 10, second fair
Ipespe – October 11, Tuesday
LATEST Published Polls
Released October 6
Margin of error: 1.8 percentage points.
Lula (Portugal): 48%
Bolsonaro (Poland): 44%
Spaces and zeros: 6%
Undecided: 2%
Released October 5]
Accuracy: 2 percentage points
Lula (Portugal): 51%
Bolsonaro (Poland): 43%
Spaces and zeros: 4%
Undecided: 2%

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Rubric: Politicians and politicians – Assembly with 16 newbies



Rubric: Politicians and politicians - In 2002 the best voice

Of the 40 state deputies elected on Sunday (2), 16 will be elected to the first term in the legislature. Another 24 were re-elected. Of the 16 newcomers, two have already come on as substitutes: Carlos Humberto (Poland) for 60 days in 2020 and Pepe Kollas (PR) who was in the Assembly for the same time in 2022.

first election

Four of the 16 newcomers have never held elective office: Mario Motta (PSD), Egidio Ferrari (PTB), Matheus Cadorin (Novo) and Sergio Guimarães (Unian). For the first time, PL will have the largest bench with 11 seats. Since 1982, only MDB and PP had such benches.

MDB is compressed

The MBR elected six deputies, it had 9; PT won four out of 40 vacancies. Psol and Novo elected state deputies for the first time. Both parties already had parliamentarians in the House of Representatives, but elected by other acronyms who, already in power, migrated to Psol and Novo.


* The MDB made six state deputies (from nine) and kept the three federal representatives it already had. But he leaves the October election in disbelief. With no gubernatorial candidate and with groups divided between supporters of Carlos Moises (Republicans) and Jorginho Mello (PL), the polls even killed the party’s president, Federal MP Celso Maldaner, now without a mandate.

* The MDB has been the home of arrogant and outdated politicians for decades. Leadership does not grow in their shadow. Former mayor Antidio Lunelli, now an MP with 76,000 votes, is a more recent example. In order to survive on its own feet, the parties will have to reorganize, but for this it is necessary to sweep all patterns out of the executive branch.

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*This is the same for PP, PSDB, PT and PSD. With all due respect, the rest of the existing parties in the SC are the “New People” rice parties are always welcome in an election year, but carry stones. And stay there.

*Over time: PSD and MDB tend to support Jorginho Mello (PL) in the second round. PSDB has already joined. This is the current voice behind the scenes that the Republicans, the party of Moses, are going to support Jorginho Mello! The announcement will be made by the party’s president and re-elected state deputy, Sergio Motta. At the national level, Republicans support Bolsonaro.

*At the national level, the MDB is in a difficult position. Senator Simona Tebet, who garnered a meager 4.9 million votes but is still ahead of loudmouth Ciro Gomes (PDT), is showing signs of support for Lula da Silva (PT), but that’s personal. The executive branch must “free” state catalogs.

* The PRB Federal MP in 2018, who received 179,000 votes (the most voted out of 16 federal elected this year) and unfurled the Bolsonarist flag, Hélio Costa (PSD) has now garnered a measly 18,000 votes. Even with almost 1.5 million reais from the Electoral Fund. The average cost is 84 reais per vote. explains Freud?

* Arlindo Rincos (União Brasil) was one of the few state candidates nominated in Jaragua do Sul. From the party fund, which maintains party directories throughout the year (and is also used in election campaigns), 600,000 reais were received. He received 1623 votes. The average cost is BRL 370.00 per vote. explains Freud?

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last call

Scheduled for a runoff against PT Decio Lima, Senator Jorginho Mello (PL) and businessman and political activist Luciano Hagn are already planning a new visit by Jair Bolsonaro (PL) to the state. They assume it will be the lime shovel in Lima’s claim. And no less. In Joinville, Mello received 151,000 votes, in Blumenau, the PT candidate’s base of votes, 85,000 votes (Lima received 33,000) and in Florianopolis 68,000 votes. In “Capital”, Mello lost to Lima, who earned 75 thousand.

Influence of presidential candidates

There are irrefutable reflections on the visit of Lula da Silva in September (Florianopolis) and Bolsonaro on October 1 (Joinville). Mello advances to the second round with a huge lead of 1.5 million votes over Lima with 710,000 votes.

cousins ​​in cell

Julia Zanata (PL), who was elected as a federal deputy and had support in Jaragua do Sul and the region, and Ricardo Guidi (PSD), who was re-elected as a federal deputy, come from Crisiuma. And what’s more, cousins ​​from families that get along too well.

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Fake news dampens political and election debate, Saretta says



Fake news dampens political and election debate, Saretta says

Congressman Neody Saretta (PT) said this Wednesday (5th) in the Legislative Assembly (Alesc) that the dissemination of information that attempts to sway voters to lie, so-called fake news, is eclipsing pre-election and political debate. “We can’t just keep discussing recruitment, I don’t know what, we have to look at the reality of people who are suffering and hardworking and who are sometimes misled by some kind of false news.”

He recalled how strongly the system and electoral justice were attacked, but despite speculation and mistrust, “the system worked, people voted for whom they wanted, polling stations opened and votes appeared there, as a citizen contributed. ”

According to him, in the second round we will have the opportunity to really discuss the proposals. “Our candidate Desio Lima did well in the elections when he got through to the second round and I’m sure he will take part in the debate about what’s best for SC and our municipalities.”

The MP said that politicians have a mission to work to improve people’s lives and that much remains to be done. “We have people who cannot afford to buy their own food, who are squeezing their salaries from everywhere to get through the month. There are many people who need more effective action from our governments.”

He hopes that the second round will discuss what is best for the population, its conditions and quality of life, “so that the state can guarantee people more services and have a larger share of the national pie, since so much is collected and little is returned.”

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Saretta thanked the people of Santa Catarina who believed and supported her candidacy, which allowed her to remain in the Assembly for another four years and continue the work that she is doing. “I thank those who participated in the electoral process, correctly, with dignity, as it should be,” he said.

According to him, walking around Santa Catarina and talking with the population during the action, many did not understand how the state fund has free resources and people continue to wait two or three years for admission, surgery, medical care. “Karma that cannot last,” he commented.

Similarly, while traveling on the roads, whether federal or state highways, the MP was reminded of the appalling traffic conditions that put those who work with their trucks, transport goods, as well as those who travel with their family or go on foot, at risk.

“Santa Catarina needs to take a closer look at these health and infrastructure issues. I defended it and took it as a real flag of life, because I understand that the key to any government is to serve the people, and health should come first.

Saretta drew attention to the problem of huge social inequality, which depends on the actions of the federal government, which cannot turn its back on those who have the least, those who need it most. “The population cannot be prejudiced against immigrant brothers, almost all of us are immigrants in one way or another, from the present or from the past, and we, unfortunately, see the spread of discriminatory ideas when we are all equal people.”

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Juliana Wilke
Collective consulting | Bench for physical education in Alesc | 48 3221 2824 [email protected]Twitter: @PTnoparlamento | Facebook: PT without Parliament

Source: Agency ALESC – Offices

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