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Mathematical trick discovered that could revolutionize landings on the Moon and Mars

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Imagem da Lua com detalhe

Space travel is a complex, confusing and dangerous topic. There are many variables that can turn a mission into a disaster. From launch to landing, everything must be very well planned, studied and simulated. Photographs taken by probes and robots can help, but they are far from the necessary information. However, all this may change with the advent of a new method of photomapping. A math trick will help you land safely on the Moon, Mars, and any other planet.

Landform mapping on our natural satellite is of great interest and importance for future human missions.

Photo mapping creates high-resolution surface maps

Researchers have discovered a method for creating high-resolution maps of the surfaces of planets such as the Moon by combining available images and topographic data.

Mapping the complex and varied surface of a world like the Moon at detailed resolution is challenging because laser altimeters, which measure changes in altitude, operate at a much lower resolution than cameras. And although photographs give a sense of surface features, it is difficult to translate images into a specific height and depth.

However, the new method combines topographic data with the degree of sunlight shading in optical images to provide a much more accurate assessment of fill shapes and structures. In the future, the development could help both astronauts and research robots.

The new method was developed by Iris Fernandes, a former PhD student at the Niels Bohr Institute at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Imaging researcher Iris Fernandez, who discovered a new method for mapping lunar soil images.

Geophysicist Iris Fernandez, a researcher at the University of Copenhagen who discovered a new mathematical method for mapping photographs of lunar soil.

Lots of missions, lots of photos, but... lacks mathematical rigor

Different missions provide data at very different resolutions, so combining different data sources with different resolutions is a huge mathematical problem. Iris Fernandez and her then supervisor, geophysicist Klaus Mosegaard, did differently, as they focused on the mathematics of the problem, reducing the problem of determining whether an equation could solve the problem.

So it was. It can be said that my supervisor, Professor Klaus Mosegaard, and I have found the mathematical key to a door that has remained closed for many years.

Iris Fernandez mentioned in a statement about his discovery, published on the website university.

It should also be noted that the new approach also requires much less computing power and is much faster than previous methods, according to the researchers.

Image used by Iris Fernandez in her study of mapping photographs of the Moon.

The moon was the first target of exploration

Researchers have demonstrated the technique on the moon. These combined high-resolution images from NASA's LROC camera Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter with lower resolution spacecraft data Lunar orbiter laser altimeter (LOLA), the authors of the article claim to have increased the resolution of the topography from about 60 meters per pixel to 0.9 meters per pixel.

In this follow-up, the authors of the study noted that this method can be applied to extract accurate topographic information about rocks on planetary bodies such as the Moon, Mars, asteroids, and any other worlds for which topographic data is available.

This method can be used to solve a number of different problems, including determining the safety of astronauts and rovers or detecting geological points of interest, and can be applied to images from satellites, rovers, or other spacecraft.

The progress of the investigation is described in an article published on June 8 in the journal Planetary and space science.

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Gmail: How to Detect a Viral Attachment and Avoid It

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Gmail: How to Detect a Viral Attachment and Avoid It

When it comes to email, there are several ways an attack can reach a victim. Dangerous links, persuasive language, and infected attachments are all elements used to scam people. In the same way, confidential data and money are stolen. So how do you avoid becoming a victim? In this article, we will explain how to detect and avoid virus attachment in Gmail, which actually applies to any email client.

Gmail: How to Detect a Viral Attachment and Avoid It

Receive attachments daily very often. The documents, audio files and images are often attached to these emails. But not all attachments we receive are necessarily good.

Malicious attachments are those that are used to spread malware onto someone’s device. Cyber ​​attacks need vectors to spread these dangerous programs. This can be done in several ways. Dangerous investments – the most popular way.

However, when a victim downloads a malicious attachment, they are actually downloading malware onto the device. Depending on the type of malware, it can affect the machine in different ways. Some less bad, some worse. However, the consequences of downloading a malicious attachment are severe in most cases.

Signs of a Dangerous Attachment

For everything he can do, it is important to identify threats.

First, it is important to analyze the type of files

When we receive any attachment via email, we can see the extension or suffix of the file. There are many different file types, most of which are .jpg, .zip, or .pdf. While there are no definitively malicious file types, there are some that are most commonly used to spread malware.

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The main types of suspicious file attachments are .exe, .vbs, .scr, .cmd, and .js. It is these types of files that can be used to spread malware.

Pay attention to the content of the email

The content of the email may also indicate whether a particular attachment is malicious. For example, if you receive an email where the sender claims to have attached a document but an MP3 attachment, then you are most likely dealing with a false attachment. This is to put it mildly.

check sender

The key step is to verify the sender’s email address. An attacker cannot replicate and use a trusted source address, but will try to create very similar addresses.

For example, an attacker might slightly change the name of the company in the address (for example, “w0rten” instead of “worten”). When receiving any type of email from a new sender, be sure to take a close look at the address.

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Notebook Positive: 6 models to buy from 1250 reais | Which one to buy?

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Notebook Positive: 6 models to buy from 1250 reais |  Which one to buy?

BUT Positive represents a wide range of notebooks in Brazil. They can meet basic needs such as office and home work or school and university assignments, for example. The following list contains six options by price. from 1250 BRLas in the case of Positivo Motion Red, equipped with an Atom Z8350 processor, from Intel4 GB RAM and 14 inch screen.

The Motion C4500D, on the other hand, is equipped with an Intel Celeron M processor, a 500 GB hard drive, and an operating system. Windows 10 and available for about 3225 reais. Another option is Motion which comes with Intel Core i3 6th generation, 128GB SSD and can be found for approximately BRL 3699. Here are six Positivo laptop models to buy in 2022.

Positive Notebook: Check out six models ranging from R$1,250 to R$3,699 — Photo: Aline Batista/TechTudo

What notebook to buy? Ask questions on the TechTudo forum.

The Positivo Motion Red model is the cheapest on this list. According to the manufacturer’s specifications, the laptop is equipped with an Intel Atom Z8350 processor, 4 GB of RAM, a 128 GB hard drive and Windows 10 operating system. from 1250 BRL.

The brand highlights that the device also features a 14-inch LED screen and a battery that promises up to seven hours of battery life. on the site AmazonThe laptop is rated 3.8 out of 5 stars, and customers report that it is suitable for basic tasks.

Positivo Motion Red comes with the Intel Atom Z8350 processor – Photo: Disclosure/Positivo

The Positivo Motion Gray Q464C-O could be another option for those looking for a simple laptop. According to the manufacturer, this model is equipped with a quad-core Intel Atom processor, 4 GB of RAM, a 64 GB hard drive and Windows 10 Home operating system. The product is on sale for amounts from BRL 1,332.

The computer is equipped with a 14.1-inch screen with a HD resolution of 1366 x 768 pixels, which can please those who want to watch movies and series on streaming services. The Positive Motion Gray Q464C-O is rated 4.8 out of 5 stars on Amazon, and buyers praise the notebook’s design, comfortable keyboard, and affordable price.

  • Pros: fulfills a promise
  • Minuses: only 64 GB internal memory

Positivo Motion Gray Q464C-O has a 14.1-inch screen – Photo: Disclosure/Positivo

The Positivo Duo sets itself apart from the other items on this list in that it has an 11.6-inch screen with touch technology and lets you fold up to 360 degrees. In addition, the brand indicates that the display has a Full HD resolution of 1920 x 1080 pixels and is equipped with a capacitive pen. Notepad found at a price of 1599 reais.

  • Pros: screen folds 360 degrees
  • Minuses: Some buyers report that the battery has poor durability.

Positivo Duo has a 360-degree folding screen – Photo: Disclosure/Positivo

Positivo Motion C4120F-AX is compatible with Alexawhich allows you to control devices connected to artificial intelligence, check your calendar notifications and create alarms via your computer. In addition, the device has shortcut keys to access the website YouTube and streaming service Netflix. The notebook has been sold. for about 1899 reais.

According to the manufacturer, the laptop consists of a dual-core Intel Celeron processor, 4 GB of RAM, 120 GB SSD, 14-inch screen and Windows 11 Home operating system. On Amazon Positivo, the Motion C4120F-AX has a 4.1 out of 5 star rating, with buyers highlighting the machine’s performance. However, some criticize the lack of a DVD player.

  • Pros: compatible with Alexa artificial intelligence system
  • Minuses: consumers complain about the lack of a disc player

Positivo Motion C4120F-AX is Alexa compatible and has an exclusive hotkey to activate the virtual assistant – Photo: Disclosure/Positivo

The Positivo Motion C4500D can be an alternative for those looking for more storage space as this model comes with a 500 GB hard drive. According to the brand, the laptop also has an Intel Celeron_M processor, 4 GB of RAM and Windows 10 operating system. for approximately BRL 3225.

  • Pros: 500 GB HD, the largest on this list
  • Minuses: many buyers complain about laptop performance

Positivo Motion C4500D comes with 500 GB hard drive – Photo: Disclosure/Positivo

Positivo Motion is another option that can solve basic problems. According to the manufacturer, this device has a 6th generation Intel Core i3 processor, 4 GB of RAM, 128 GB SSD and Windows 10 Home operating system. he was seen for figures from 3699 reais.

Like the other items on this list, this one also comes with a 14-inch HD 1366 x 768 pixel resolution screen. The Positivo Motion Compact has a 4.5 out of 5 star rating on Amazon and is rated as good value by buyers. On the other hand, some consider the volume of the laptop to be low.

  • Pros: storage device in SSD format, which provides faster reading and writing of files
  • Minuses: high price

The Positivo Motion Compact comes with a 128GB SSD — Photo: Disclosure/Positivo

Best Selling Electronics on Amazon Brazil in 2022

Transparency note: Amazon and TechTudo maintain a commercial partnership. By clicking on a store link, TechTudo may receive a share of sales or other compensation. Prices shown may vary and product availability is subject to stock availability. The values ​​indicated in the text refer to the month of October 2022.

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Will smartphones do away with cameras?

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How many people do you see on the street with a special camera in their hands? Probably very few, especially since smartphones have begun to offer shooting quality at least comparable to a DSLR.

However, in terms of quality, despite the great strides made by Apple, Samsung, Xiaomi, Huawei, Vivo, Oppo, etc., the truth is that a good camera still outperforms any high-end smartphone. At least for a while!

Do smartphones have what it takes to complete the cameras?

Thus, Sony is no longer the only giant in the mobile technology world who believes that smartphones have what it takes to surpass the image quality of digital SLR cameras in the near future. After all, Judd Heap, VP of Camera Product Management at Qualcomm, seems to share a very similar sentiment. You know why?

Because the capabilities of sensors continue to grow, and in fact the level of development and innovation in this area is much higher than in the rest of the photographic industry.

What’s the secret?

S22 Ultra, Vivo, X80 Pro

Apparently, the potential lies in the level of processing that exists in the world of smartphones, especially in the higher ranges. After all, compared to the most powerful cameras on the shelves, be it Sony, Canon or Nikon, any high-end smartphone is at least 10 times more powerful in terms of processing power.

Computing power, which, as you understand, has only increased.

Big brands don’t want to fight smartphones.

As you may know, Canon has already announced the end of its DSLR lineup, and it looks like Nikon is joining the same train with its focus on mirrorless cameras.

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In short, the greats of this world know that it is impossible to fight the practicality that smartphones offer.

So what about the megapixel war? This is an obstacle to evolution!

A Qualcomm expert believes that this new numbers war in the world of smartphones is useless, and that for a good development of the market, it would be a good idea to bet on sensors between 40 and 50MP.

A curious proposition, as Samsung will make a big and ugly 200MP bet from next year on its top of the range Galaxy S23 Ultra. Here we must take into account that more megapixels does not necessarily mean larger sensors. Pixels will be smaller, and for this reason, they may have difficulty getting light through. In the near future, it is very likely that the maximum sensor size for smartphones will not exceed one inch (1 inch).

Besides, what do you think of all this? Do you think that cameras will die, remaining only for professionals? Share your opinion with us in the comment box below.

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