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India, linguistic kaleidoscope

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India, linguistic kaleidoscope

August 15, 2022 marks the 75th anniversary of India’s independence. This event would have gone unnoticed were it not for a Facebook post by Shiv Kumar Singh, a Hindi reader at the Lisbon Faculty of Arts, as well as a translator and author Hindi-Portuguese-Hindi Dictionary (Hummingbird, 2018).

India is only the second most populous country in the world, just after China, with about fourteen hundred million souls. It is also the seventh largest region after Russia, Canada, China, USA and Australia. It borders Pakistan to the west and, clockwise, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar. It is also the birthplace of four major religions (Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism) and many others.

Hindu-majority India and Muslim-majority Pakistan (along with what today corresponds to Bangladesh and Myanmar) constituted the so-called British India or Raj British. It was at the moment of gaining independence that Pakistan (August 14, 1947) and India (the next day) separated, resulting in two separate countries, relations between which are not peaceful today; this split led to a massive movement of people: Muslims towards Pakistan, Hindus and Sikhs towards India. Portugal maintained three enclaves in Indian territory, Goa, Daman and Diu, until 1961.

India is an invaluable treasure for anyone interested in historical linguistics, linguistic typology, sociolinguistics and language policy, to name but a few of the fields of study.

India is an invaluable treasure for anyone interested in historical linguistics, linguistic typology, sociolinguistics and language policy, to name but a few of the fields of study. The census data on native languages ​​spoken in India which is still valid (for 2021 not yet), this is still 2011 data. In them, the respondents indicated more than nineteen thousand five hundred names of languages ​​or dialects that they considered their native languages. Because these raw data were not reliable, a linguistic check was applied to them, resulting in the still impressive number of 1,369 native languages; of these, 121 are mother tongues of at least 10,000 inhabitants. The cleaning that the data has undergone is proof of how difficult it is to establish linguistic statistics. With such diversity, it is perfectly natural for every Indian to speak two or three languages ​​in everyday life.

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The languages ​​of India are grouped into six families – Indo-Aryan (a branch of Indo-European, which includes Hindi), Dravidian, Austro-Asiatic, Tibeto-Burman, Thai-Kadai and Andaman. Several Portuguese-based creoles, collectively known as “Indo-Portuguese”, have emerged in South Asia; Representatives of Diu, Daman, Korlai and Kananor have survived in India. The concept of “national language” is not used in the country. The official languages ​​of the Indian Union and its administration are Hindi written in Devanagari (the system used for Sanskrit) and English. In addition to English, the 2007 Constitution establishes 22 officials: Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkanim, Maitili, Malayalam or Malabar, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santale , Sindh, Tamil, Telugu and Urdu; with the exception of Hindi, the official languages ​​are state-owned.

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Mother of autistic boy attacked by CR7 criticizes Portuguese again

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Mother of autistic boy attacked by CR7 criticizes Portuguese again

The case of Cristiano Ronaldo’s aggression against an autistic fan continues to be heard in England. Sarah Kelly, mother of Jake Harding, has asked the English Football Federation to punish the Portuguese star.

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Sarah’s complaint comes after the league filed a complaint against a Manchester United player for aggression against Jake in the Manchester team’s match against Everton on April 9 last season in the Premier League. After an unsuccessful result, the Portuguese dropped a fan’s mobile phone on the way to the locker room.

According to Sarah, she and her son once again became victims of offenses in social networks after the announcement of the complaint against the attacker.

“People are following me, saying that I am rebelling again, but I didn’t know anything about it. The case should have been heard six months ago. My son talks every day about what happened to him. He still hasn’t returned his phone,” he said.

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Jake’s mother still asks how the player manages to sleep at night after what happened. “Let’s hope he finally gets the right punishment. He can’t keep getting away with it. Your behavior is unacceptable…” Sarah concluded.

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Marseille in California. ″Where the Portuguese is, there is Portugal″

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Marseille in California.  ″Where the Portuguese is, there is Portugal″

“You are the future,” President Marcelo Rebelo de Souza told a three-year-old girl dressed in traditional Portuguese clothing who came out to greet him on the podium where he spoke at Artesia Portuguese Salon. The city, located on the outskirts of Los Angeles, has not hosted the President of the Portuguese Republic since 1989. This weekend, he did it with pomp and the setting of an ornate Portuguese-American community bursting with pride.

“We have never lost the honor and responsibility of being representatives of this beautiful flag,” said Jimmy Enes, a member of Artesia DES, a Portuguese descendant, in a welcoming speech delivered in perfect Portuguese. “When we are asked who we are, we always answer”i am portuguese“and not”Portuguese-American“or ‘Portuguese American’,” he said. “That’s why we’re trying step by step to protect our heritage on the outskirts of Los Angeles, one of the greatest cities in the world.”

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Cristiano Ronaldo is injured by the Portuguese national team and thanks the fans for their support

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Cristiano Ronaldo is injured by the Portuguese national team and thanks the fans for their support



Cristiano Ronaldo got a cut on his nose and needed a bandage (Photo: MICHAL CIZEK / AFP)

Photo: Lance!

Gratitude. It seems that the attacker Cristiano Ronaldo shared his social media with Portuguese fans after a clash with Czech goalkeeper Vaclik. In the auction, the assailant received a cut on his face and needed a bandage to stop the bleeding.

“Great game, important team win! We remain focused on our goal. Thanks to the Portuguese public for the fantastic support,” the striker wrote on his Instagram account.

The match was marked by a great performance Portugal national team, who beat the Czech Republic 4-0 to take the lead in Nations League Group 2 with ten points with one matchday to go in the group stage of the tournament. Cristiano Ronaldo ended up losing to his team.

After the match, the leader of the Portuguese national team appreciated the result achieved on the road. “It was a very important victory and all teammates should be congratulated on the result,” commented the 37-year-old striker.

With three wins, one draw and one defeat, the Portuguese team has the best attack in their group with eleven goals scored and a net difference of nine. The team is one draw away from qualifying for the tournament series. The next match against Spain is next Tuesday in the city of Braga.

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