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Watching the death of a rare giant star

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Watching the death of a rare giant star

NASA/ESA/Hubble

Artist’s impression of the red hypergiant VY Canis Major.

A team of astronomers led by the University of Arizona has created a detailed 3D image of the dying giant star.

A team led by researchers Ambesh Singh and Lucy Ziuris of the University of Arizona traced the distribution, directions and velocities of various molecules around a red hypergiant star known as VY Canis Major.

Their findings, which they presented on June 13 at the 240th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Pasadena, California, offer unprecedented insight into the death of giant stars.

The work was carried out with collaborators Robert Humphreys of the University of Minnesota and Anita Richards of the University of Manchester, UK.

As extreme supergiantsalso known as hypergiants, are very rare and few exist in the Milky Way.

Examples include Betelgeuse, the second brightest star in the constellation of Orion, and NML Cygnus, also known as V1489 Cygnus, in the direction of the constellation Cygnus.

Unlike lower-mass stars, which are more likely to swell as they transition to the red giant phase but generally retain a spherical shape, hypergiants tend to undergo substantial mass losses as they form. structures complex and very irregular consists of arcs, clusters and nodes.

Located about 3009 light-years from Earth, VY Canis Major – or VY CMa for short – is a pulsating variable star in the constellation Canis Major.

Covering a range of 10,000 to 15,000 astronomical units (1 astronomical unit or AU is the average distance between the Earth and the Sun, about 150 million kilometers), VY CMa is possibly the most massive star in the Milky Wayaccording to Zyurys.

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“Think of it like Betelgeuse on steroids,” said Ziuris, regent professor in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of Arizona and the Steward Observatory. “It’s much bigger, much more massive, and erupts every 200 years or so.”

The team chose to study VY CMa because it is considered one of the best examples of this type of star.

“We are particularly interested in what hypergiants do at the end of their lives,” said Singh, a fourth-year doctoral student and member of the Ziuris lab. “People used to think these massive stars were just went supernovabut we are no longer sure.

“If that were the case, we would see many more supernova explosions across the sky,” Zyurys added. “Now we think they might collapse into black holes silently, but we don’t know which ones end up this way, or why or how.”

Previous images of VY CMa by NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope and spectroscopy have shown distinct arcs and other clusters and nodes, many of which extend thousands of astronomical units from the central star.

To uncover more details about the processes by which hypergiant stars end their lives, the team began tracking specific molecules around the hypergiant and matching them to existing images of dust taken by the Hubble Space Telescope.

“No one has been able to get a complete picture of this star,” Zyuris said, explaining that his team set out to understand the mechanisms by which the star’s mass is released, which appear to be different from those of the smaller stars that make up the star. , your red giant stage at the end their lives.

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“You don’t see this beautiful symmetrical mass loss, but convection cells that “shoot through” the star’s photosphere like giant bullets and eject mass in different directions,” Zyuris said. “They are similar to the coronal arcs seen on the Sun, but a billion times larger.”

The team used the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile to track various molecules in material ejected from the star’s surface.

While some observations are still ongoing, preliminary maps have been made for sulfur oxide, sulfur dioxide, silica, phosphorus oxide, and sodium chloride. Based on these data, the team built an image of the structure of the global molecular stream VY CMa on a scale covering all the material ejected by the star.

“How molecules trace the arcs on the bodywhich tells us that the molecules and dust are well mixed,” said Singh.

“What’s great about molecular radio waves is that they give us speed information, unlike dust emissions, which are static,” he added.

By moving ALMA’s 48 antennas into various configurations, the researchers were able to obtain information about the directions and velocities of the molecules and map them to different regions of the hypergiant envelope in great detail, even correlating them with different mass ejection events over time. .

According to Singh, processing the data required some “hard work” in terms of processing power.

“At the moment we have processed almost a terabyte ALMA and we are still getting data that we have to analyze to get the best resolution possible,” he said.

“Only calibration and data cleansing requires up to 20,000 iterations, which takes a day or two for each molecule,” he adds.

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“Thanks to these observations, we can now map them in the sky,” Zyurys added. “So far, only small parts of this huge structure have been studied, but you cannot understand the loss of mass and how these large stars die unless you look at the entire region. That’s why we wanted to create the complete picture.”

With financial support from the NSF (National Science Foundation), the team plans to publish their findings in cycle of scientific articles.

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After the confusion, DuckDuckGo started blocking Microsoft scripts

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DuckDuckGo Microsoft scripts rastreamento privacidade

DuckDuckGo is one of the most secure search engines that guarantees users maximum privacy. This has been its flag for many years, thanks to which it was able to lure users from Google to Microsoft’s Bing.

Despite all guarantees of safety and protection, DuckDuckGo has been involved in a controversy that has now decided to put an end to it. It has now expanded its protection and has also begun blocking all of the tracking scripts that Microsoft uses on its websites.


Let's get even more privacy on DuckDuckGo

Even though DuckDuckGo promises users maximum user privacy and security, so far it has had some limitations in what it gives users. In fact, he did not take the promised measures and allowed some users to be followed.

It was discovered and opened to the world, explaining how Microsoft scripts are resolved. Of course, this was not known to users and allowed the software giant to monitor without any restrictions or control.

DuckDuckGo Microsoft Scripts Privacy Tracker

Microsoft scripts are also blocked

It ends now like DuckDuckGo disclosed, as well as Microsoft scripts are blocked in search results. In this seemingly simple way, users are once again protected when using this privacy-focused search engine.

This change is promised this week, and mobile apps and browser extensions will get access first. After that, next month it will be applied to the remaining applications and to all items that are not yet available.

DuckDuckGo Microsoft Scripts Privacy Tracker

Not all tracking information will be filtered

In fact, contrary to what DuckDuckGo just showed, not all scripts will be blocked. It turned out that thanks to the use of advertising on their platform, which is carried out in partnership with Microsoft, advertisers still want to know about the success of clicks on ads. So the relevant Microsoft scenarios will be allowed.

This is an important change that provides greater privacy for DuckDuckGo users. After filtering out everything sent by Google, Facebook and other services, it now accumulates Microsoft and the collection of information that it did with its tracking scripts.

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Mathematical trick discovered that could revolutionize landings on the Moon and Mars

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Imagem da Lua com detalhe

Space travel is a complex, confusing and dangerous topic. There are many variables that can turn a mission into a disaster. From launch to landing, everything must be very well planned, studied and simulated. Photographs taken by probes and robots can help, but they are far from the necessary information. However, all this may change with the advent of a new method of photomapping. A math trick will help you land safely on the Moon, Mars, and any other planet.

Landform mapping on our natural satellite is of great interest and importance for future human missions.

Photo mapping creates high-resolution surface maps

Researchers have discovered a method for creating high-resolution maps of the surfaces of planets such as the Moon by combining available images and topographic data.

Mapping the complex and varied surface of a world like the Moon at detailed resolution is challenging because laser altimeters, which measure changes in altitude, operate at a much lower resolution than cameras. And although photographs give a sense of surface features, it is difficult to translate images into a specific height and depth.

However, the new method combines topographic data with the degree of sunlight shading in optical images to provide a much more accurate assessment of fill shapes and structures. In the future, the development could help both astronauts and research robots.

The new method was developed by Iris Fernandes, a former PhD student at the Niels Bohr Institute at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Imaging researcher Iris Fernandez, who discovered a new method for mapping lunar soil images.

Geophysicist Iris Fernandez, a researcher at the University of Copenhagen who discovered a new mathematical method for mapping photographs of lunar soil.

Lots of missions, lots of photos, but... lacks mathematical rigor

Different missions provide data at very different resolutions, so combining different data sources with different resolutions is a huge mathematical problem. Iris Fernandez and her then supervisor, geophysicist Klaus Mosegaard, did differently, as they focused on the mathematics of the problem, reducing the problem of determining whether an equation could solve the problem.

So it was. It can be said that my supervisor, Professor Klaus Mosegaard, and I have found the mathematical key to a door that has remained closed for many years.

Iris Fernandez mentioned in a statement about his discovery, published on the website university.

It should also be noted that the new approach also requires much less computing power and is much faster than previous methods, according to the researchers.

Image used by Iris Fernandez in her study of mapping photographs of the Moon.

The moon was the first target of exploration

Researchers have demonstrated the technique on the moon. These combined high-resolution images from NASA's LROC camera Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter with lower resolution spacecraft data Lunar orbiter laser altimeter (LOLA), the authors of the article claim to have increased the resolution of the topography from about 60 meters per pixel to 0.9 meters per pixel.

In this follow-up, the authors of the study noted that this method can be applied to extract accurate topographic information about rocks on planetary bodies such as the Moon, Mars, asteroids, and any other worlds for which topographic data is available.

This method can be used to solve a number of different problems, including determining the safety of astronauts and rovers or detecting geological points of interest, and can be applied to images from satellites, rovers, or other spacecraft.

The progress of the investigation is described in an article published on June 8 in the journal Planetary and space science.

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Marco’s high school students made costumes for the Artamega show

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Year 10 students of the Escola Secundária do Marco Professional Course in Fashion Design participated in the design of the costumes for the Artâmega – Marco de Canaveses Arts Conservatory show “Perhaps in the Heart”, filmed on stage at Sala Suggia, at Casa da Música, in Porto, July 9, 2022.

In a production technology class led by teacher Tanya Fernandez, more than 80 costumes were designed and made to match the characters from the various stories featured in the play.

The students made drawings that were transferred to the molds used to mark, cut and shape the fabric into pieces during the sewing process. “The teacher and students showed great dedication and effort, working tirelessly to complete all the work within the deadline”specifies an ad.

Artamega thanked “The opening and availability of the professional design and fashion course at Escola Secundária do Marco to participate in this wonderful project presented at Casa da Música, highlighting the importance of synergy, in this case between schools that are in the same space”ends.

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