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Pulses originate in a region different from where they stop



Pulses originate in a region different from where they stop

Researchers have found that the region where our impulses originate is different from the region where they stop, which could have implications for future research into Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases.

Impulse control is not simple. The ability to wait for the start whistle in a race, for example, shows our ability to neutralize forward momentum, which is emphasized Public.

The impulse is blocked in one of the neural pathways located in the basal ganglia of our brain. In these ganglia, we have two main neural pathways: direct and indirect.

It is in the indirect neural pathway that the process of stopping the impulse occurs, but the idea that these two neural pathways are crucial in our intention to act or not to act is not the last time.

Researchers have already believed that the direct path enhances the impulse to action, and the indirect path nullifies this will. In 2016, a group from the Champalimo Foundation demonstrated that stimulation of the direct pathway of the basal ganglia enhanced the effects in the rats used in this study.

Another foundation team is currently targeting two neural pathways. The results of a new study, published in the scientific journal Nature explain a better way How is momentum controlled? in our neural networks.

This new study also sheds light on research into pathologies with motor symptoms, such as Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease.

In addition to the role of the indirect neuronal pathway in the control of impulsivity, scientists have made another discovery: it is in the dorsomedial striatum, an area of ​​the basal ganglia associated with cognition, that impulses arise.

The striatum is where direct and indirect neural pathways send information to other areas of the basal ganglia themselves. In this case, two pieces of information are sent: one to create an impulse, the other to stop this impulse.

After working with mathematical models, the team moved on to experiments in rats, suppressing the transmission of information along a direct pathway in the dorsomedial striatum: animals changed their behaviorreducing impulses.

Joseph J. Paton, the researcher who led the study, explained in an interview with Público that our daily lives are full of situations in which we must control our impulses.

“From a kid at school who wants to answer a teacher’s question but has to wait to be called, to someone who wants to suppress the urge to eat sweets because they know they’re going to feel bad afterward, there are countless examples. in which we have management conflicts between a plurality of wills,” emphasizes Paton.

But by thinking from the opposite perspective, in these impulses we were also able to pick out some of the symptoms of illnesses such as Parkinson’s or Huntington’s, two of the examples mentioned by the group of scientists.

“Parkinson’s disease is largely caused by the death of cells that use dopamine, neurotransmitter involved in this disease. These cells transmit information through direct and indirect pathways that use different dopamine receptors,” emphasizes Paton.

In people suffering from this disease, the indirect pathway becomes more active and stops, for example, the impulse to move.

“When subjects regain the ability to move and the indirect pathway returns to its original level of activity, the same does not happen with the direct pathway,” explains Paton, adding that it could be new target of investigation for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

The researcher also pointed out that the new study could have implications for other diseases whose symptoms are associated with impulses.

“It’s interesting to think about other diseases like Tourette’s disease, obsessive-compulsive disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although they are more cognitive, they also suggest a deregulation of this balance between stimulation and deterrence of behavior“, Basic moments.

“It’s important that we start thinking more about the different possibilities that might even explain some of the hard-to-understand data. We tend to think in a very linear way, and it’s hard to imagine that we can have multiple ways of acting,” concludes Paton.

ZAP //

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‘My power is really low’: NASA’s Mars Insight rover prepares to launch from the Red Planet



NASA Lander InSight He has delivered what may be his last message from Mars as he embarks on a historic mission to uncover the secrets of the Red Planet’s interior.

In November, the space agency warned that the probe could be running out of time as dust continued to condense and stifle InSight’s power.

“Spacecraft power generation continues to decline as windblown dust accumulates on solar panels,” NASA said in a statement. Update November 2. “The end is expected to come in the coming weeks.”

message shared NASA The InSight Twitter account tweeted on Monday: “My power is very low so this might be the last photo I can upload. Don’t worry about me: my time here has been productive and uneventful. If I can keep talking to my mission team, I will—but I will.” Subscribe here soon. Thank you for staying with me.”

My power is very low, so this might be the last photo I can upload. But don’t worry about me: my time here has been productive and uneventful. If I can keep talking to my mission team, I will, but I’ll sign here soon. Thank you for staying with me.

— NASA InSight (@NASAInSight) December 19, 2022

A geologist robot armed with a hammer and a seismograph first reached the barren expanse of Elysium Planitia in November 2018.

Since then, she has carried out geological excavations, taking the first measurements of earthquakes with a high-tech seismometer placed right on the surface of Mars.

Last month, the solar-powered car released an update to remind us of its time in space.

“I was lucky to live on two planets. Four years ago I made it safely to the second one, much to the joy of my family at first. Thanks to my team for taking me on this journey of discovery. I hope I can be proud of you.”

According to the published mission, Insight has measured more than 1,300 seismic events since it was published, and more than 50 of them had signals clear enough for the team to extract information about their location on Mars. Results.

The probe’s data also provided detailed information about Mars’ interior, liquid core, surprisingly variable remnants beneath the surface of an extinct magnetic field, climate and seismic activity.

old for Its launch in 2018NASA Chief Scientist Jim Green said the mission was “fundamental to understanding the origins of our solar system and how it became what it is today.”

NASA will not declare the mission complete until Insight confirms the arrival of two spacecraft orbiting Mars that are relaying their information back to Earth.

In 2018, the veteran rover announced the capabilities end of his 15 year stay Sending an incomplete photo of the Valley of Perseverance.

A severe dust storm darkened the sky around the solar-powered rover, shattering the sun and leaving behind a dark image with white spots due to camera noise. The transmission is interrupted before the complete image can be transmitted.

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What’s new on February 7, 2023



OnePlus 11 5G Buds Pro 2 evento

Being very close companies, OPPO and OnePlus have decided to create a new partnership, with the latter being a pioneer in the market. It has become the representative of the best smartphones in the group, and this will be seen very soon.

Proving this, OnePlus has announced that it will have news soon. The following brand assets will be announced on February 7, 2023. We are talking about OnePlus 11 5G and Buds Pro 2.

In recent years, OnePlus has been showcasing new hardware in an attempt to find a new place in the market. The brand has not always seen its full potential, betting on mid-range or entry-level smartphones.

The situation is changing, and the novelty will go on sale in early 2023, February 7. It is on this day that the new OnePlus 11 5G will be presented with all the expected news. We definitely have the new Qualcomm Snapdragon 8 Gen 2 SoC here. There's still 16GB of storage left and 256GB of onboard storage.

OnePlus 11 5G Buds Pro 2 events

It is expected that he will receive a 6.7-inch OLED display with a resolution of 1440p and a frequency of 120 Hz. In the field of photography, we will have an important change: a 50 MP main camera, a 48 MP ultra wide-angle camera and a 32 MP telephoto lens with 2x zoom. For selfies and video calls, you'll have a 16-megapixel camera.

The photography partnership with Hasselblad will continue with OnePlus for fine-tuning and some additions. This alliance has brought important results for the best smartphones of the brand, guaranteeing the best photos in any situation.

OnePlus 11 5G Buds Pro 2 events

In addition to the new OnePlus 11 5G, another brand new feature is also expected to arrive at the event. We're talking about the Buds Pro 2, which are solidifying an audio commitment that's becoming more of a reality. The brand promises "rich stereo quality sound with crystal clear clarity".

Stays like this marked by the beginning of February, another important novelty will enter the market. OnePlus wants to reclaim its place, and that will be the brand's bet for years to come. OnePlus 11 5G and Buds Pro 2 take the first step in this direction.

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New POCO Smartphone Seen in Certification May Debut Soon



New POCO Smartphone Seen in Certification May Debut Soon

According to information provided by Mukul Sharma, the unidentified POCO device can be identified by the model number 22127PC95I. Due to the fact that it was first seen online, the marketing name of this equipment is still a mystery.

POCO has not launched new mobile devices, including smartphones, to the market for some time now. On the other hand, several POCO smartphones such as POKO X5 and X5 Pro have been spotted on various certification sites, suggesting that the company will release these products soon. Today a new smartphone from the sub-brand xiaomi has been spotted on the BIS India website but the device does not have a name or any other details associated with it.

According to information provided by Mukul Sharma, the unidentified POCO device can be identified by the model number 22127PC95I. Due to the fact that it was first seen online, the marketing name of this equipment is still a mystery. It is possible that it will debut as a mid-range smartphone. The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) website, other than the model number of the smartphone, does not provide any additional information about the device. However, this seems to indicate that the product will be available in the Indian market very soon.

In other related news, POCO X5 5G has recently been seen on several certification sites including SIRIM in Malaysia, BIS in India and the US FCC. According to various sources, it is possible that this is a renamed or modified version Redmi Note 12 5Gwhich was recently released in China.

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It is supposed to be equipped screen 6.67″ AMOLED display with 120Hz refresh rate and chipset Snapdragon 4 Gen 1 inside. Can run MIUI 13 based on android 12 and have LPDDR4x RAM in addition to UFS 2.2 storage. The front camera is rumored to be 8MP while the main rear camera will be 48MP with 2MP depth. May have the ability drums 5000 mAh and 33W fast charging support.

In addition POCO X5 Pro 5G has recently been seen on various sites dedicated to certification. The battery is said to have a capacity of 5000 mAh and can charge at 67W. It will come with MIUI 14 preinstalled and will support n5, n7, n38, n41, n77 and n78 network bands. 5G.

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