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Pulses originate in a region different from where they stop



Pulses originate in a region different from where they stop

Researchers have found that the region where our impulses originate is different from the region where they stop, which could have implications for future research into Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases.

Impulse control is not simple. The ability to wait for the start whistle in a race, for example, shows our ability to neutralize forward momentum, which is emphasized Public.

The impulse is blocked in one of the neural pathways located in the basal ganglia of our brain. In these ganglia, we have two main neural pathways: direct and indirect.

It is in the indirect neural pathway that the process of stopping the impulse occurs, but the idea that these two neural pathways are crucial in our intention to act or not to act is not the last time.

Researchers have already believed that the direct path enhances the impulse to action, and the indirect path nullifies this will. In 2016, a group from the Champalimo Foundation demonstrated that stimulation of the direct pathway of the basal ganglia enhanced the effects in the rats used in this study.

Another foundation team is currently targeting two neural pathways. The results of a new study, published in the scientific journal Nature explain a better way How is momentum controlled? in our neural networks.

This new study also sheds light on research into pathologies with motor symptoms, such as Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease.

In addition to the role of the indirect neuronal pathway in the control of impulsivity, scientists have made another discovery: it is in the dorsomedial striatum, an area of ​​the basal ganglia associated with cognition, that impulses arise.

The striatum is where direct and indirect neural pathways send information to other areas of the basal ganglia themselves. In this case, two pieces of information are sent: one to create an impulse, the other to stop this impulse.

After working with mathematical models, the team moved on to experiments in rats, suppressing the transmission of information along a direct pathway in the dorsomedial striatum: animals changed their behaviorreducing impulses.

Joseph J. Paton, the researcher who led the study, explained in an interview with Público that our daily lives are full of situations in which we must control our impulses.

“From a kid at school who wants to answer a teacher’s question but has to wait to be called, to someone who wants to suppress the urge to eat sweets because they know they’re going to feel bad afterward, there are countless examples. in which we have management conflicts between a plurality of wills,” emphasizes Paton.

But by thinking from the opposite perspective, in these impulses we were also able to pick out some of the symptoms of illnesses such as Parkinson’s or Huntington’s, two of the examples mentioned by the group of scientists.

“Parkinson’s disease is largely caused by the death of cells that use dopamine, neurotransmitter involved in this disease. These cells transmit information through direct and indirect pathways that use different dopamine receptors,” emphasizes Paton.

In people suffering from this disease, the indirect pathway becomes more active and stops, for example, the impulse to move.

“When subjects regain the ability to move and the indirect pathway returns to its original level of activity, the same does not happen with the direct pathway,” explains Paton, adding that it could be new target of investigation for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

The researcher also pointed out that the new study could have implications for other diseases whose symptoms are associated with impulses.

“It’s interesting to think about other diseases like Tourette’s disease, obsessive-compulsive disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although they are more cognitive, they also suggest a deregulation of this balance between stimulation and deterrence of behavior“, Basic moments.

“It’s important that we start thinking more about the different possibilities that might even explain some of the hard-to-understand data. We tend to think in a very linear way, and it’s hard to imagine that we can have multiple ways of acting,” concludes Paton.

ZAP //

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Marco’s high school students made costumes for the Artamega show



Year 10 students of the Escola Secundária do Marco Professional Course in Fashion Design participated in the design of the costumes for the Artâmega – Marco de Canaveses Arts Conservatory show “Perhaps in the Heart”, filmed on stage at Sala Suggia, at Casa da Música, in Porto, July 9, 2022.

In a production technology class led by teacher Tanya Fernandez, more than 80 costumes were designed and made to match the characters from the various stories featured in the play.

The students made drawings that were transferred to the molds used to mark, cut and shape the fabric into pieces during the sewing process. “The teacher and students showed great dedication and effort, working tirelessly to complete all the work within the deadline”specifies an ad.

Artamega thanked “The opening and availability of the professional design and fashion course at Escola Secundária do Marco to participate in this wonderful project presented at Casa da Música, highlighting the importance of synergy, in this case between schools that are in the same space”ends.

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Microsoft Brings New Latest System Feature to Windows 10



Windows 10 Windows 11 Microsoft novidades funcionalidades

While Microsoft is focused on its new system, Microsoft is committed to ensuring that Windows 11 continues to evolve. It will be supported for a few more years, so it should continue to receive news and improvements.

With what is being developed in Windows 11, there is an opportunity to bring these technologies to Windows 10. This will happen soon with the announcement of a new feature that will improve the printing experience in Windows 10.

Microsoft will mix features

Windows 11 is currently in development for Microsoft. This system is being improved and tries to give users as much functionality as possible, thereby ensuring that this is a modern system, as the best there is.

What seems logical is to combine efforts and include features in both Microsoft systems. So, what's next for Windows 10 is expected and important for its development, both for users and for what it offers them.

Windows 11 will contribute to Windows 10

In particular, Windows 10 will now be able to more precisely control the printing process. This will have a new control that will prevent fingerprints from being created without the user's permission, or from being accumulated without the user's explicit intention.

Windows 10 Windows 11 What's New Microsoft

This control will be as simple as using a PIN to block printing. Only after user authorization will the document be sent to the printer to be converted into a plain sheet of paper.

More news expected in the future

By introducing this new feature to Windows 10, Microsoft wants users to save paper and ink cartridges. At the same time, it provides greater security and guarantees user privacy, especially in environments with multiple printers.

Of course, this will only be the first moment when the functions of the two systems will be combined. Microsoft will certainly increase this proximity and thus guarantee users the maximum even faster.

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understand the meteor shower that will happen this month



understand the meteor shower that will happen this month

Observation of the sky has always been necessary for the development of mankind. Through this the cycle of seasons for planting could be understood, for navigation without technical instruments, and the stars were guides in great sea adventures. Today we can observe the stars only because of their beauty. This month of August, for example, will be the peak meteor shower, Perseids.

In addition, there will be good opportunities to observe planets such as Uranus, Saturn, Mars, Jupiter and Mercury.

To date, all phenomena the astronomical sights that can be observed cause great surprise and commotion all over the world. Many people gather to drink, eat and celebrate a wonderful moment.

Perseid meteor shower: when and how to follow?

August is going to be quite a hectic month in space. For example, this month NASA you need to complete the mission Artemis 1, the first part agency bring astronauts back to the moon.

A date has yet to be set as three days have been confirmed within which the launch could take place, the first of which is at the end of August and the remainder in the first week of September.

In the middle of the month will Perseid meteor shower, one of the best and most important for science. It occurs annually in the month of August with a maximum at dawn 12. It is due to the debris from Comet Swift/Tuttle and under ideal conditions can represent up to 120 meteors per hour.

This meteor shower can be seen with the naked eye in areas with low urban lighting and clear skies. Stay with us early in the morning on August 12th to enjoy the event.

It will also be possible to visualize in the second week of August another conjunction between the Moon and Saturn. Look for them heading north at 00:55 on August 12 when Saturn is slightly lower and to the right. lua.

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