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Manuscript of the century. XVIII with data from the Portuguese Inquisition found in Israel – Observer

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Manuscript of the century.  XVIII with data from the Portuguese Inquisition found in Israel – Observer

An 18th-century Portuguese manuscript detailing the activities of the Portuguese Inquisition has been discovered by the National Library of Israel, which has digitized it and made it available online, the institution said on its Facebook account. Twitter.

it A rare document that collects information on hearings and executions for more than 100 years. cruel actions of people accused of practicing Judaism and other “sins”.

According to The Times of Israel, the Central Archives of the Jewish History Library published on Wednesday 60 page document written in Portuguese.which mainly reports on public hearings and executions that took place between 1540 and 1669, most of them in Lisbon, called autos da feu, and which were carried out by the Catholic Church.

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The manuscript was found in the archives of this library.

The victims described in the documents were mostly Jews who had recently converted to Christianity and were accused of practicing their Jewish customs, but there were also “traditional Christians” found guilty of acts of “sodomy, bigamy, possession of forbidden books, and sacrilege” . “, the library said in a statement, quoted by the newspaper.

The Portuguese Inquisition was created in 1536 following the Spanish Inquisition, which had existed since the last quarter of the 15th century, which forced Jews to cross the border to escape religious persecution and atrocities, and after forced conversions had already taken place in the country. natural Jews and refugees, as well as their children.

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Hearings and executions continued for more than two centuries and were considered acts of penance for the accused.

The public executions, which drew large crowds, included large bonfires where the authorities burned alive the so-called sinners after being tortured, according to the verdicts of the so-called Tribunal of the Holy Office.

Israel Archives director Yochai Ben-Gedaliah said the rare discovery “sheds new light on the realities of a difficult chapter in Jewish history” and on the strict nature of the Catholic Church’s observance of rules.

“We hope that the newly discovered document will help scientists better understand this fascinating and complex period of history,” he added.

The manuscript details the autos da fé, including the number of victims, dates, locations, and even the names of the priests involved in the public executions.

The Portuguese Inquisition was officially abolished in 1821, more than half a century after the last known execution in which a Jesuit priest was accused of blasphemy, regarding the 1755 earthquake as divine punishment.

The humanist Damian de Gois in the 16th century and the priest António Vieira in the 17th century were among the individuals persecuted or opposed by the Inquisition.

Although the Portuguese Inquisition was abolished in 1821, it lost power in the second half of the 18th century, especially under the influence of the Marquis de Pombal, who claimed to oppose its methods, considering them to be actions “against Christian principles”, despite the fact that he used them . in the Tavoras trial, as the historian João Lucio de Azevedo emphasized in The Marquis of Pombal and His Time.

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Starting in 2015, Portugal and Spain announced that anyone who could prove their descent from Sephardim — Jews expelled from the Iberian Peninsula by the Inquisition in 1492 — could apply for citizenship.

In 2020, the Portuguese Parliament approved the annual Day of Remembrance for the Victims of the Inquisition, which takes place on March 31st.

The National Archives of Torre do Tombo holds tens of thousands of files from almost 300 years of the Inquisition in Portugal.

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″We are not at the time when the Portuguese come here and discover football″

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″We are not at the time when the Portuguese come here and discover football″

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Abel Ferreira has already earned some criticism from Cookie, and now the tone has especially risen after a conference with Atlético Goianiense coach Jorginho.

In Brazil, they continue to discuss Abel’s trip to the locker room in the quarter-final match against Libertadores. Jorginho, the coach of Atlético Goianiense, who has already criticized the Portuguese coach, explained what would happen if the Brazilian team’s technical leader showed the same behavior.

“If a Brazilian coach went into the dressing room to listen to music during a penalty kick, he would be called a coward. But when he wins, nothing happens, everything is right,” he said in press statements.

Jorginho raised his tone and delivered a more general criticism of the Portuguese coach, recalling that football had already been invented in Brazil and that the reigning two-time South American champion had a tougher job ahead of him.

“Abel is a very good coach, period. The question of his abilities is not discussed. It is discussed, especially in this situation, that he did not discover football. football! What happened to Jorge Jesus was extraordinary, what happens to Abel too, but that’s because they have a team like Flamengo and Palmeiras. I want to see him do what he does here at Atlético Goianiense. Come here to become the champion of Brazil,” he explained.

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Francisco J. Marques: “It seems that the evil of Portuguese football is the behavior of the FC Porto bank…” – FC Porto

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Francisco J. Marques: "It seems that the evil of Portuguese football is the behavior of the FC Porto bank..." - FC Porto



Dragons Communications Director Thinks Judges Are Overzealous

Francisco J. Márquez once again criticized the strict actions of the refereeing teams against the FC Porto bank, especially Sergio Conceição, citing as an example what happened in Wiesel compared to what happened in Casa Pia Benfica. The Communications Director of FC Porto considered it an exaggeration how the referees penalize the banks. “The strange thing is what is happening, it seems that the evil of Portuguese football is the behavior of the banks, especially FC Porto. It’s a bit strange that after two days of announcing the new recommendation, this so-called zero tolerance is limited to the Porto FC bench, when in the Casa Pia Benfica game we saw the reaction of the Benfica bench. I think it’s nothing to worry about, it’s normal in any championship, but with zero tolerance for these people should be warned. In the case of a yellow card, Sergio Conceição in Wiesel, the rules were strictly observed because he left the technical area, one can warn with a yellow card, but how many times the coaches leave the technical area “Jorge Jesus played on touch line as if he were a full back I admit that Sergio Conceição left a little technical area but this whole situation does not make sense, let’s hope that common sense will prevail and not force unnatural behavior There are players, coaches and managers who live the game intensively, there are different views on the game, I think that what is happening is a clear exaggeration and this needs to be edit,” Francisco J. Marquez said in an interview with Porto. Channel. .

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Dhaka University to promote Portuguese language teaching in Bangladesh

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Teachers in France petition to develop Portuguese language teaching

ECamões – Instituto da Cooperacao e da Língua said in a statement that the protocol with the University of Dhaka is the first institution in Bangladesh and aims to “create conditions to support the promotion of the teaching of Portuguese and the dissemination of the language.” and Portuguese culture in the country and in the region, thus contributing to the internationalization of the Portuguese language.”

The agreement, the note adds, was signed by Camões chairman Joõo Ribeiro de Almeida and, at a distance, University of Bengal treasurer Mamtaz Uddin Ahmed, in the presence of the Bangladeshi ambassador. to Portugal, Tariq Ahsan.

According to the statement, Camões’ activities extend to more than 70 countries through its direct learning network and about 310 protocols signed with associations and institutions of basic, secondary and higher education abroad.

Through these agreements, Camões supports the establishment of associated schools, the recruitment of teachers by foreign universities, and the establishment of Portuguese language centers and Camões departments.

Camões – The Institute for Cooperation and Language is a public institution under the control of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, whose mission is to propose and implement a policy of cooperation with Portugal, as well as a policy of teaching and disseminating the Portuguese language and culture abroad.

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