The pandemic that wiped out a third of Europe’s population in the Middle Ages will start in Central Asia, more precisely in Kyrgyzstan.
Pandemics are not new. In the middle of the 14th century, the Black Death devastated the Middle Ages, being one of the deadliest pandemics, especially in Europe, where it is estimated that a third of the population was destroyed, and in Western Asia. For centuries, its origin has been a mystery that has puzzled scientists, but perhaps the mystery has finally come to an end.
new study published in Nature may have deciphered where the disease came from. The key is in the group 30 skeletons which were recovered from the graves in the Chui valley in northern Kyrgyzstan in the late 1880s, 130 years ago.
The plague was caused by bacteria Yersinia plague and scientists have been looking for its genome on the European continent for a long time. In a previous study where they compared genomes with the remains of victims of the disease, researchers Maria Spirow and Johannes Krause found that the second wave of the pandemic began in a village in Russia. Scientific Alert.
Other teams of scientists also said they found the first victim of the plague, who died in Latvia from infection with a less contagious variety of the bacterium. thousands of years before the pandemic began.
A new study by Spyrow and Krause now suggests that the plague originated in Central Asia, due to DNA evidence from the bodies of seven people taken from graves whose graves contained vague details about an unknown plague. Thus, the disease originates in Kyrgyzstan in the 1330s.
Spyrow adds that the team decided to analyze the teeth as they are. many blood vessels, giving researchers “an excellent opportunity to detect blood-borne pathogens that may have killed people.” Scientists have sequenced the genetic material of the teeth and compared it with modern and historical Y. pestis genomes.
Traces of ancient plague bacterium DNA were found in the teeth of three of the seven skeletons. The inscription of the date on the tombstones thus shows the exact year of these first deaths caused by the Black Death – 1338.
“Our research tackles one of the biggest and most fascinating questions in history and determines when and where most infamous and infamous killer human,” said Philip Slavin, a historian at the University of Stirling.
However, the study has some limitations such as small sample size. Archaeological finds are also usually inconclusive, and things could change if the remains of more plague victims who died even earlier are found.
Turkey lifted its veto on Finland and Sweden joining NATO on Tuesday.
The leaders of the three countries met on the sidelines of the NATO summit in Madrid.
NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg has announced that Turkey has lifted its veto on Finland and Sweden joining the Atlantic Alliance after signing a memorandum that “answers Ankara’s concerns.”
“We have completed a very constructive meeting with the President [da Turquia, Recep Tayyip] Erdogan or President [da Finlândia, Sauli] Niinistö and the Prime Minister [da Suécia, Magdalena] Andersson, and I am pleased to announce that we have reached an agreement that paves the way for Sweden and Finland to join NATO,” Stoltenberg said.
The Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) spoke at a press conference at the Exhibition Park of Madrid, in the northeast of the Spanish capital, where the summit of the leaders of the North Atlantic Alliance is taking place.
Sweden and Finland applied to join NATO on May 18 after the Russian invasion of Ukraine ended the historic policy of neutrality.
Italian Prime Minister Mario Draghi said on Tuesday that the presence of Russian President Vladimir Putin at the next G20 summit in Bali was ruled out by the Indonesian presidency of the body.
At the summit of the group of seven most industrialized countries of the world (G7), which ended this Tuesday in Germany, they asked about The Kremlin’s announcement that Putin would attend the Bali summit in November, Draghi said that Indonesian President Joko Widodo ruled out the possibility.
Widodo “was categorical: he [Putin] not to come. What could happen – I don’t know what will happen, but what it could happen, maybe it’s remote interference“said Draghi, whose the country will hand over the G20 presidency to Indonesia in Bali.
The information has not been This was stated by the head of the Indonesian state, Joko Widodo. who will meet on Tuesday in Kyiv with his Ukrainian counterpart in an attempt to achieve a ceasefire in the conflict caused by the Russian invasion.
Joko Widodo, who attended Monday’s G7 summit in Germany, is already on his way to Kyiv, Indonesian Foreign Minister Retno Marsudi said. accompanies the head of state in a video message.
After a visit to Ukraine and meeting with President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelensky, The Indonesian leader is heading to Russia, where he will meet with Putin on Thursday, becoming the first Asian leader to visit the two countries since the start of the Russian invasion of Ukraine on February 24.
Before leaving on Sunday, Widodo said he was going to ask Zelensky and Putin an immediate ceasefire and the search for a peace agreement through dialogue.
in spite of pressure from countries such as the US, Canada and Australia to keep Putin out of the G20 summit from 11 to 13 November.on the island of Bali, Indonesia still retains its invitation to the Russian leader.
In April, the President of Indonesia, publicly known as Jokowi, sent Zelensky a G20 invitation and said Indonesia was ready to “contribute to the peace effort”.
In the past decade, Russia has been excluded from the group of industrialized countries then known as the G8, renamed the G7 after the 2014 invasion of the Ukrainian Crimean peninsula.
Russia announced on Tuesday that it would end its offensive in Ukraine, launched more than four months ago, only when the Kyiv authorities and the Ukrainian army surrender and accept “all Russian conditions.”
“The Ukrainian side may end [a guerra] during the dayThis was stated by the official representative of the Kremlin (President of Russia) Dmitry Peskov, whose words are quoted by the French news agency AFP.
For this, according to Peskov, it is enough that the Kyiv authorities ordered the “nationalist detachments” and Ukrainian soldiers to lay down their arms and that “all the conditions set by Russia” be met.
“Then it will all be over in one day,” a spokesman for Russian President Vladimir Putin told reporters in Moscow.
The leaders of the seven most industrialized countries (Germany, Canada, the United States, France, Italy, Japan and the United Kingdom) and the European Union (EU) conclude their meeting on Tuesday in Elmau in southern Germany ahead of the summit. NATO in Madrid.
No deadline or timetable has been set by the Russian side for ending what Moscow officially calls a “special military operation” in Ukraine, Peskov said.
“We are guided by the statements of our president,” he said.