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Early galaxies may be bigger and more complex than we thought



Early galaxies may be bigger and more complex than we thought


An artist’s impression reveals the previously unknown complexity of the young galaxy A1689-zD1.

Scientists used the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) to observe a significant amount of cold neutral gas in the outer regions of the young galaxy A1689-zD1, as well as streams of hot gas from the center of the galaxy.

These results may shed light on a critical phase of galactic evolution for early galaxies, when young galaxies begin to transform to look more and more like their new, more structured cousins.

The observations were presented at a press conference at the 240th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Pasadena, California, and will be published in the next issue of the journal Astrophysical Journal.

A1689-zD1 is a young active star-forming galaxy. Slightly less bright and less massive than the Milky Way, it is located about 13 billion light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Virgo.

Was opened hidden behind the galaxy cluster Abell 1689 in 2007 and confirmed in 2015 due to gravitational lensing, which increased the brightness of the young galaxy by more than 9 times.

Since then, scientists have continued to study the galaxy as a possible analogue evolution of other “normal” galaxies.

This label is ordinary is an important distinction that has helped researchers divide the behavior and characteristics of A1689-zD1 into two groups: typical and unusual, with the unusual characteristics mimicking those of newer and more massive galaxies.

A1689-zD1 is in the early universe. – just 700 million years after the Big Bang. This is the era when galaxies were just beginning to form,” he said. Hollis Akinsundergraduate student in astronomy at Grinnell College and lead author of the study.

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“What we see in these observations is evidence of processes that may contribute to the evolution of what we call normal galaxies, unlike massive galaxies. Most importantly, these processes are processes that we previously thought did not apply to these ordinary galaxies.”

One of these unusual processes is the production and distribution in the galaxy fuel for star formationpotentially in large quantities.

The team used the highly sensitive Band 6 ALMA receptor to observe a halo of carbon gas that extends far beyond the center of the young galaxy.

This may be evidence of ongoing star formation in the same region, or the result of structural disturbances such as mergers or outflows during earlier stages of galaxy formation.

This is unusual for early galaxies, Akins says. “The carbon gas that we have observed in this galaxy is usually found in the same regions as neutral hydrogen gas, where new stars also tend to form. If this is true for A1689-zD1, the galaxy is likely much larger than previously thought.”

“It is also possible that this halo is remnant of galactic activity earlier, such as mergers that impacted the galaxy with complex gravitational forces, which led to the release of large amounts of neutral gas over these large distances, ”adds the astronomer.

“In both cases, the early evolution of this galaxy was probably active, dynamic and we learn that this can be a common themealthough not previously observed during the formation of the first galaxies,” concludes Akins.

This discovery may not just be unusual, it could have significant implications for the study of galactic evolution, especially as radio observations unravel invisible details at optical wavelengths.

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Seiji FujimotoA researcher at the Niels Bohr Institute’s Space Dawn Center, who co-authored the study, said: “The carbon dioxide emissions of A1689-zD1 are much more extensive than those observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, which could mean that the first galaxies are not as small as they seem. “.

“If in fact the first galaxies are larger than we previously thought, this great influence on the theory the formation and evolution of galaxies in the early universe,” adds Fujimoto.

Led by Akins, the team also observed bursts of hot ionized gas, often triggered by violent galactic activity such as supernovae, that were being pushed outwards from the center of the galaxy. Given its potentially explosive nature, flows may have something to do with the carbon halo.

“Flows arise as result of violencesuch as supernova explosions, which eject nearby gaseous material from the galaxy — or black holes at the centers of galaxies — which have a strong magnetic effect that can eject material in powerful jets,” Akins said.

“Because of this, there is a strong possibility that warm flows are somehow related to the presence of a cold carbon halo. And it’s rfurther emphasizes the importance multi-phase, or hot to cold, nature of the gas flow,” he added.

Darah Watson, Associate professor at the Niels Bohr Institute’s Cosmic Dawn Center and co-author of the new study confirmed that A1689-zD1 is a high-redshift galaxy in 2015, the most distant known dusty galaxy.

“We have seen this type of large burst of gaseous halos from galaxies that formed later in the universe, but seeing it in such an early galaxy means that this behavior universal even in the humblest galaxies from which most of the stars in the early universe formed,” Watson said.

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“Understanding how these processes occurred in such a young galaxy is critical to understand how star formation occurs in the early universe,” the astronomer added.

Kirsten Knudsenprofessor of astrophysics in the Department of Space, Earth and Environment at Chalmers University of Technology and co-author of the study, in 2017 found evidence for the existence of the dust continuum A1689-zD1. Knudsen emphasized the random role of extreme gravitational lensing in making every possible discovery in the investigation.

“Given that A1689-zD1 is more than nine times magnified, we can see important details that are otherwise difficult to see with conventional observations of galaxies so far away. In the end, we see here that the first galaxies Universes are very complex, and this galaxy will set new tasks and research results for some time to come,” the researcher said.

Doctor. Joe Pesce, ALMA Program Manager at the National Science Foundation, added: “This exciting ALMA study adds to a growing set of results indicating that things in the early universe are not exactly what we expected, but are nonetheless really interesting and exciting. !”

Spectroscopic and infrared observations of A1689-zD1 are scheduled for January 2023 using the NIRSpec IFU (Integral Field Unit) and NIRCam instruments on the James Webb Space Telescope.


The new observations will complement previous Hubble and ALMA data, providing a deeper and more complete multiwavelength look at the young galaxy.

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Apple releases an update that will “save” your iPhone



Not so long ago, Apple released the iOS 16 update for older iPhone models, at the same time that the new iPhone 14s were released. However, as we are used to, the first versions of the new iOS always cause some problems.

A few hours after the arrival of this update, many users have already complained about various problems. Among the most serious are severe camera shake on the iPhone 14 Pro and Max, as well as difficulties with recognizing touches on the screen of some models.

In the case of newer iPhones, the problem with their rear camera appeared whenever they used a non-genuine Apple app. In terms of screen issues, iPhone X, XR, and 11 users have reported them, but only on devices that have had their screen replaced.

iOS 16.0.2 has been released to fix all the problems that have been wrecking the iPhone.

There were a lot of users who got desperate because of the many problems that the update brought to their smartphones, so it’s no surprise that Apple wasted no time in releasing a new update. This update came in the form of iOS 16.0.2, essentially fixing every known issue, big and small.

While the issues with the rear camera and touch screen response were clearly the biggest ones, they weren’t the only ones. Many users have also reported issues with copy/paste, VoiceOver, and even screen brightness levels during device setup.

Issues fixed by iOS 16.0.2 update on various iPhones

  • The rear camera on iPhone 14 Pro and iPhone 14 Pro Max had strong unexplained vibrations when using third-party apps.
  • The screen of the smartphone was completely dark during the setup process
  • Copying and pasting text between applications resulted in endless authorization requests, making it impossible to use
  • The VoiceOver feature was unavailable after restarting the device.
  • iPhone X, XR, and 11 screens are now responsive to touch even after panel replacement.
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James Webb captures the sharpest image of Neptune’s rings in decades!



James Webb captures the sharpest image of Neptune's rings in decades!
James Webb Space Telescope
The James Webb Space Telescope is the world’s first space science observatory.

The most impressive thing about the new Image captured by Webb is a clear image of Neptune’s rings – some of which have not been discovered since Voyager 2 as well as NASA became the first spacecraft to observe Neptune during its flight in 1989.. In addition to several bright, narrow rings, the Webb image clearly shows Neptune’s faintest dust lanes.

“It’s been three decades since we last saw those dull dusty rings and this is the first time we see them in infrared“, notes Heidi Hummel, Neptune systems expert and Webb multidisciplinary scientist. The extremely stable and accurate quality of the Webb image makes it possible to detect these very faint rings so close to Neptune..


Neptune has fascinated explorers since its discovery in 1846.. Located 30 times farther from the Sun than Earth, Neptune orbits in a distant, dark region of the outer solar system. At this far distance, the Sun is so small and dim that noon on Neptune is like a dark twilight on Earth.

this is planet characterized as an ice giant due to the chemical composition of its innards. Compared to the gas giants Jupiter and Saturn, Neptune is much richer in heavier elements than hydrogen and helium. This is immediately visible in The blue signature of Neptune in visible wavelength images from the Hubble Space Telescope, caused by a small amount of methane gas..

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images de Webb Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) are objects in the near infrared range from 0.6 to 5 microns, so Neptune doesn’t look blue to Webb. Actually, methane gas absorbs red and infrared light so strongly that the planet is quite dark at those wavelengths in the near infrared range, except when there are clouds at high altitude.

Such clouds of methane ice are visible as streaks and bright spots that reflect sunlight before being absorbed by methane gas.. Images of other observatories, including Hubble Space Telescope this is W. M. Keck Observatoryhave recorded these rapidly changing cloud characteristics over the years.

Pictures taken by the James Webb Space Telescope

What’s more, the thin glowing line around the planet’s equator could be a visual sign of the global atmospheric circulation that powers Neptune’s winds and storms. The atmosphere sinks and heats up at the equator, so it glows brighter in the infrared than the surrounding cooler gases..

neptune rings
Image of Neptune’s rings taken by the James Webb Space Telescope. Credits: NASA, ESA, CSA, STScI.

Neptune’s 164-year orbit means its north pole at the top of the image above is out of astronomers’ view. but Webb’s images suggest an intriguing brightness in this area.. From Webb’s point of view, the previously known vortex at the South Pole is obvious, but Webb first discovered a continuous band of high-latitude clouds around him..

[O telescópio espacial] James Webb continues to amaze with his discoveries. This time it gave us a wider and clearer view of Neptune.

Webb will unravel the mysteries of our solar system, look beyond distant worlds around other stars. and penetrate the mysterious structures and origins of our universe and our place in it. Webb is an international program led by NASA and its partners, ESA (European Space Agency) and Canadian Space Agency.

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A drop of water on an asteroid? Japanese probe finds footprints in asteroid dust – Observer



A drop of water on an asteroid?  Japanese probe finds footprints in asteroid dust - Observer

The story began 8 years ago. Japan sent a probe into space in 2014 Hayabusa-2. Target? Examine the asteroid Ryugu. The plan was fulfilled, the sampling was carried out, and two years ago the space probe again entered the Earth’s orbit. At that moment, a capsule was launched with samples collected in Ryugu and which had been the object of analysis and study for many years.

Now the latest study, published in the journal Science, reveals a surprising fact: 5.4 grams of rocks and dust collected from the asteroid contained a drop of water.

“That drop of water has a lot of meaning.” During the press conference, leading scientist Tomoki Nakamura made no secret of his delight at the discovery. According to a University of Tokyo researcher, this drop of water could change our view of the origin of life. “Many scientists believe that water was brought from space, but we first detected water on Ryugu, a near-Earth asteroid.”

The drop, Nakamura explained, “was carbonated water containing salt and organics.” This is an argument in favor of those who defend the hypothesis that during collisions asteroids could bring water to Earth, with salt and organics, added the scientist, who leads a team of 150 people of different nationalities.


“We found evidence that this could be directly related, for example, to the origin of the oceans or organic matter on Earth,” Nakamura concluded.

According to Nikkei Asia, a drop of water was found in a ferrous sulfate crystal carving and is estimated to be 4.6 billion years old. Ryugu patterns will continue to be studied.

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