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Early galaxies may be bigger and more complex than we thought



Early galaxies may be bigger and more complex than we thought


An artist’s impression reveals the previously unknown complexity of the young galaxy A1689-zD1.

Scientists used the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) to observe a significant amount of cold neutral gas in the outer regions of the young galaxy A1689-zD1, as well as streams of hot gas from the center of the galaxy.

These results may shed light on a critical phase of galactic evolution for early galaxies, when young galaxies begin to transform to look more and more like their new, more structured cousins.

The observations were presented at a press conference at the 240th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Pasadena, California, and will be published in the next issue of the journal Astrophysical Journal.

A1689-zD1 is a young active star-forming galaxy. Slightly less bright and less massive than the Milky Way, it is located about 13 billion light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Virgo.

Was opened hidden behind the galaxy cluster Abell 1689 in 2007 and confirmed in 2015 due to gravitational lensing, which increased the brightness of the young galaxy by more than 9 times.

Since then, scientists have continued to study the galaxy as a possible analogue evolution of other “normal” galaxies.

This label is ordinary is an important distinction that has helped researchers divide the behavior and characteristics of A1689-zD1 into two groups: typical and unusual, with the unusual characteristics mimicking those of newer and more massive galaxies.

A1689-zD1 is in the early universe. – just 700 million years after the Big Bang. This is the era when galaxies were just beginning to form,” he said. Hollis Akinsundergraduate student in astronomy at Grinnell College and lead author of the study.

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“What we see in these observations is evidence of processes that may contribute to the evolution of what we call normal galaxies, unlike massive galaxies. Most importantly, these processes are processes that we previously thought did not apply to these ordinary galaxies.”

One of these unusual processes is the production and distribution in the galaxy fuel for star formationpotentially in large quantities.

The team used the highly sensitive Band 6 ALMA receptor to observe a halo of carbon gas that extends far beyond the center of the young galaxy.

This may be evidence of ongoing star formation in the same region, or the result of structural disturbances such as mergers or outflows during earlier stages of galaxy formation.

This is unusual for early galaxies, Akins says. “The carbon gas that we have observed in this galaxy is usually found in the same regions as neutral hydrogen gas, where new stars also tend to form. If this is true for A1689-zD1, the galaxy is likely much larger than previously thought.”

“It is also possible that this halo is remnant of galactic activity earlier, such as mergers that impacted the galaxy with complex gravitational forces, which led to the release of large amounts of neutral gas over these large distances, ”adds the astronomer.

“In both cases, the early evolution of this galaxy was probably active, dynamic and we learn that this can be a common themealthough not previously observed during the formation of the first galaxies,” concludes Akins.

This discovery may not just be unusual, it could have significant implications for the study of galactic evolution, especially as radio observations unravel invisible details at optical wavelengths.

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Seiji FujimotoA researcher at the Niels Bohr Institute’s Space Dawn Center, who co-authored the study, said: “The carbon dioxide emissions of A1689-zD1 are much more extensive than those observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, which could mean that the first galaxies are not as small as they seem. “.

“If in fact the first galaxies are larger than we previously thought, this great influence on the theory the formation and evolution of galaxies in the early universe,” adds Fujimoto.

Led by Akins, the team also observed bursts of hot ionized gas, often triggered by violent galactic activity such as supernovae, that were being pushed outwards from the center of the galaxy. Given its potentially explosive nature, flows may have something to do with the carbon halo.

“Flows arise as result of violencesuch as supernova explosions, which eject nearby gaseous material from the galaxy — or black holes at the centers of galaxies — which have a strong magnetic effect that can eject material in powerful jets,” Akins said.

“Because of this, there is a strong possibility that warm flows are somehow related to the presence of a cold carbon halo. And it’s rfurther emphasizes the importance multi-phase, or hot to cold, nature of the gas flow,” he added.

Darah Watson, Associate professor at the Niels Bohr Institute’s Cosmic Dawn Center and co-author of the new study confirmed that A1689-zD1 is a high-redshift galaxy in 2015, the most distant known dusty galaxy.

“We have seen this type of large burst of gaseous halos from galaxies that formed later in the universe, but seeing it in such an early galaxy means that this behavior universal even in the humblest galaxies from which most of the stars in the early universe formed,” Watson said.

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“Understanding how these processes occurred in such a young galaxy is critical to understand how star formation occurs in the early universe,” the astronomer added.

Kirsten Knudsenprofessor of astrophysics in the Department of Space, Earth and Environment at Chalmers University of Technology and co-author of the study, in 2017 found evidence for the existence of the dust continuum A1689-zD1. Knudsen emphasized the random role of extreme gravitational lensing in making every possible discovery in the investigation.

“Given that A1689-zD1 is more than nine times magnified, we can see important details that are otherwise difficult to see with conventional observations of galaxies so far away. In the end, we see here that the first galaxies Universes are very complex, and this galaxy will set new tasks and research results for some time to come,” the researcher said.

Doctor. Joe Pesce, ALMA Program Manager at the National Science Foundation, added: “This exciting ALMA study adds to a growing set of results indicating that things in the early universe are not exactly what we expected, but are nonetheless really interesting and exciting. !”

Spectroscopic and infrared observations of A1689-zD1 are scheduled for January 2023 using the NIRSpec IFU (Integral Field Unit) and NIRCam instruments on the James Webb Space Telescope.


The new observations will complement previous Hubble and ALMA data, providing a deeper and more complete multiwavelength look at the young galaxy.

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‘My power is really low’: NASA’s Mars Insight rover prepares to launch from the Red Planet



NASA Lander InSight He has delivered what may be his last message from Mars as he embarks on a historic mission to uncover the secrets of the Red Planet’s interior.

In November, the space agency warned that the probe could be running out of time as dust continued to condense and stifle InSight’s power.

“Spacecraft power generation continues to decline as windblown dust accumulates on solar panels,” NASA said in a statement. Update November 2. “The end is expected to come in the coming weeks.”

message shared NASA The InSight Twitter account tweeted on Monday: “My power is very low so this might be the last photo I can upload. Don’t worry about me: my time here has been productive and uneventful. If I can keep talking to my mission team, I will—but I will.” Subscribe here soon. Thank you for staying with me.”

My power is very low, so this might be the last photo I can upload. But don’t worry about me: my time here has been productive and uneventful. If I can keep talking to my mission team, I will, but I’ll sign here soon. Thank you for staying with me.

— NASA InSight (@NASAInSight) December 19, 2022

A geologist robot armed with a hammer and a seismograph first reached the barren expanse of Elysium Planitia in November 2018.

Since then, she has carried out geological excavations, taking the first measurements of earthquakes with a high-tech seismometer placed right on the surface of Mars.

Last month, the solar-powered car released an update to remind us of its time in space.

“I was lucky to live on two planets. Four years ago I made it safely to the second one, much to the joy of my family at first. Thanks to my team for taking me on this journey of discovery. I hope I can be proud of you.”

According to the published mission, Insight has measured more than 1,300 seismic events since it was published, and more than 50 of them had signals clear enough for the team to extract information about their location on Mars. Results.

The probe’s data also provided detailed information about Mars’ interior, liquid core, surprisingly variable remnants beneath the surface of an extinct magnetic field, climate and seismic activity.

old for Its launch in 2018NASA Chief Scientist Jim Green said the mission was “fundamental to understanding the origins of our solar system and how it became what it is today.”

NASA will not declare the mission complete until Insight confirms the arrival of two spacecraft orbiting Mars that are relaying their information back to Earth.

In 2018, the veteran rover announced the capabilities end of his 15 year stay Sending an incomplete photo of the Valley of Perseverance.

A severe dust storm darkened the sky around the solar-powered rover, shattering the sun and leaving behind a dark image with white spots due to camera noise. The transmission is interrupted before the complete image can be transmitted.

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What’s new on February 7, 2023



OnePlus 11 5G Buds Pro 2 evento

Being very close companies, OPPO and OnePlus have decided to create a new partnership, with the latter being a pioneer in the market. It has become the representative of the best smartphones in the group, and this will be seen very soon.

Proving this, OnePlus has announced that it will have news soon. The following brand assets will be announced on February 7, 2023. We are talking about OnePlus 11 5G and Buds Pro 2.

In recent years, OnePlus has been showcasing new hardware in an attempt to find a new place in the market. The brand has not always seen its full potential, betting on mid-range or entry-level smartphones.

The situation is changing, and the novelty will go on sale in early 2023, February 7. It is on this day that the new OnePlus 11 5G will be presented with all the expected news. We definitely have the new Qualcomm Snapdragon 8 Gen 2 SoC here. There's still 16GB of storage left and 256GB of onboard storage.

OnePlus 11 5G Buds Pro 2 events

It is expected that he will receive a 6.7-inch OLED display with a resolution of 1440p and a frequency of 120 Hz. In the field of photography, we will have an important change: a 50 MP main camera, a 48 MP ultra wide-angle camera and a 32 MP telephoto lens with 2x zoom. For selfies and video calls, you'll have a 16-megapixel camera.

The photography partnership with Hasselblad will continue with OnePlus for fine-tuning and some additions. This alliance has brought important results for the best smartphones of the brand, guaranteeing the best photos in any situation.

OnePlus 11 5G Buds Pro 2 events

In addition to the new OnePlus 11 5G, another brand new feature is also expected to arrive at the event. We're talking about the Buds Pro 2, which are solidifying an audio commitment that's becoming more of a reality. The brand promises "rich stereo quality sound with crystal clear clarity".

Stays like this marked by the beginning of February, another important novelty will enter the market. OnePlus wants to reclaim its place, and that will be the brand's bet for years to come. OnePlus 11 5G and Buds Pro 2 take the first step in this direction.

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New POCO Smartphone Seen in Certification May Debut Soon



New POCO Smartphone Seen in Certification May Debut Soon

According to information provided by Mukul Sharma, the unidentified POCO device can be identified by the model number 22127PC95I. Due to the fact that it was first seen online, the marketing name of this equipment is still a mystery.

POCO has not launched new mobile devices, including smartphones, to the market for some time now. On the other hand, several POCO smartphones such as POKO X5 and X5 Pro have been spotted on various certification sites, suggesting that the company will release these products soon. Today a new smartphone from the sub-brand xiaomi has been spotted on the BIS India website but the device does not have a name or any other details associated with it.

According to information provided by Mukul Sharma, the unidentified POCO device can be identified by the model number 22127PC95I. Due to the fact that it was first seen online, the marketing name of this equipment is still a mystery. It is possible that it will debut as a mid-range smartphone. The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) website, other than the model number of the smartphone, does not provide any additional information about the device. However, this seems to indicate that the product will be available in the Indian market very soon.

In other related news, POCO X5 5G has recently been seen on several certification sites including SIRIM in Malaysia, BIS in India and the US FCC. According to various sources, it is possible that this is a renamed or modified version Redmi Note 12 5Gwhich was recently released in China.

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It is supposed to be equipped screen 6.67″ AMOLED display with 120Hz refresh rate and chipset Snapdragon 4 Gen 1 inside. Can run MIUI 13 based on android 12 and have LPDDR4x RAM in addition to UFS 2.2 storage. The front camera is rumored to be 8MP while the main rear camera will be 48MP with 2MP depth. May have the ability drums 5000 mAh and 33W fast charging support.

In addition POCO X5 Pro 5G has recently been seen on various sites dedicated to certification. The battery is said to have a capacity of 5000 mAh and can charge at 67W. It will come with MIUI 14 preinstalled and will support n5, n7, n38, n41, n77 and n78 network bands. 5G.

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