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He ended up in his pockets in 2002. It has been 20 years since the euro began to circulate.

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He ended up in his pockets in 2002.  It has been 20 years since the euro began to circulate.

The introduction of the euro as a currency on world financial markets took place on January 1, 1999, but only in 2002 did it actually reach the pockets of citizens as a physical currency.

The euro was the first major step towards European political integration, although it has behaved unevenly throughout its history.

These are the main dates of its appearance and development:

– 01.01.2002: Euro starts physical circulation in 12 EU countries: Spain, Italy, France, Portugal, Germany, Luxembourg, Belgium, Netherlands, Austria, Ireland, Finland and Greece.

– 01.07.2002: Banknotes and coins of the former independent systems of the eurozone countries are withdrawn from the European market.

– 01.01.2007: Slovenia accepts the euro as its official currency.

– 01.01.2008: Malta and Cyprus have introduced the euro.

– 04/22/2008: The euro breaks the $ 1.60 barrier in its intraday quotes, although it closes with a $ 1.5931 exchange rate resurrected as a safe haven against the dollar, under pressure from the financial crisis in the United States. …

– 07/15/2008: The euro reaches an all-time high against the dollar at $ 1.5990 by the close of the session, shortly before the debt crisis hit the eurozone.

– 01.01.2009: Slovakia accepts the euro as its currency.

– 05.02.2010: The EU launches the first aid program for the eurozone, providing financial assistance to Greece to avoid bankruptcy. Bailouts followed in Ireland, Portugal, Cyprus and Spanish banks.

– 01.01.2011: Estonia becomes the 17th country in the eurozone.

– 06/30/2011: The euro is officially operational in the non-EU principality of Andorra.

– 01.01.2014: Latvia becomes the 18th country in the eurozone.

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– 01.01.2015: Lithuania becomes the 19th country in the eurozone.

– 31/12/2015: The European currency fell 10.2% in 2015 when Greece received its third aid.

– 01/01/2017: The euro marks 15 years, approaching parity with the dollar, which fell in 2016 to its lowest level in 14 years ($ 1.03 per euro).

– 17.09.2018: The European Central Bank (ECB) introduces new Europa 100 and 200 euro banknotes, which no longer include the 500 euro banknote to avoid facilitating illegal activities.

– 31/12/2020: after several years of intense fluctuations, the exchange rate of the euro against the dollar will stabilize in 2020 in the range of 1.1 to 1.2.

– 12/27/2021: The euro is quoted at $ 1.1313 and 2021 is expected to end its worst year in six years with a fall of more than 7% as the US currency appreciates.

– 01.01.2022: The euro, the most tangible achievement of the community project, celebrates its 20th anniversary since its inception.

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Economy

The cost of living. Lisbon falls in the table and behind Madrid and Barcelona

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The cost of living.  Lisbon falls in the table and behind Madrid and Barcelona

The spread of telecommuting and flexible work, the war in Ukraine, currency fluctuations and widespread inflation are having a significant impact on employee pay, which could have serious implications for companies in the global battle for talent. Conclusion from the Cost of Living 2022 study launched by a consulting company Mercer, which estimates the cost of living in 227 world cities for expatriates based on a pooled analysis of the comparative cost of more than 200 items in each location, including housing, transportation, food, clothing, home and entertainment. Leadership again belongs to Hong Kong. Zurich (2nd), Geneva (3rd), Basel (4th) and Bern (5th) round out the top five most expensive places in the world for expats.


Thiago Borges, business leader at Mercer Portugal, said: “The volatility caused by COVID-19 and exacerbated by the crisis in Ukraine has added to global economic and political uncertainty. This uncertainty, which goes hand in hand with significant increases in inflation in much of the world, worries expatriates about their purchasing power and socioeconomic stability.”


Foreigners paid using the origin approach usually receive a living wage allowance to maintain their purchasing power in destination countries. This subsidy is calculated by applying a cost-of-living index to a portion of workers’ net wages (their “disposable income”, i.e. the amount they spend on goods and services used daily in their place of residence).


Both inflation and exchange rate fluctuations directly affect the purchasing power of workers working outside their country of origin. The rise of remote and flexible work has also forced many employees to rethink their priorities, work-life balance and where they live. These conditions could have serious implications for companies that need to rethink their mobility strategy to stand a chance in the global battle for talent. On the other hand, this situation also provides cities with an opportunity to attract foreign investment.

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“For organizations, the financial well-being of employees is a key factor in their ability to attract and retain the best talent, and with reliable and accurate data, organizations can define clear strategies for structuring their employee mobility packages. International players in unstable times”. , added Thiago Borges.


He adds: “Working and economic conditions around the world are evolving faster than ever before. Companies must carefully navigate international contract costs/packages during times of uncertainty and adapt to the new world of work to ensure business sustainability and a sustainable future for their expatriates. “, also noting that “companies need market intelligence and clear strategies to put into practice expatriate mobility packages that are competitive in uncertain times while ensuring the financial well-being of their employees, as well as business efficiency, transparency and fairness,” it said. Marta Diaz, Head of Compensation at Mercer Portugal, holds key talent,” he added.


Mercer cost-of-living data helps organizations understand the importance of tracking currency fluctuations and assessing inflationary and deflationary pressures on goods, services and housing across regions of operation. The data also helps define and maintain compensation packages for employees in international operations. In addition, the cost of living in a location can have a significant impact on its attractiveness as a place for talent and influence the decision of organizations to choose a location to expand and transform their geographic footprint.



TOP 10 most expensive


Mercer’s Cost of Living 2022 study places Copenhagen (Denmark) 11th in the world rankings, London (UK, 15th), Vienna (Austria, 21st) and Amsterdam (Netherlands, 25th) , as well as other well-known cities in Western Europe, in addition to the aforementioned Swiss cities of Zurich, Geneva, Basel and Bern.

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The most expensive city in Eastern Europe is Prague (Czech Republic), which ranks 60th out of 227 cities. It is followed by Riga (Latvia, 79th), Bratislava (Slovakia, 105th) and Tallinn (Estonia, 140th). The cheapest city in Eastern Europe is Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, ranked 209th.


In turn, Lisbon, which has dropped 26 positions in the ranking, is now below the middle of the table of European cities, yielding to cities such as Madrid or Barcelona.







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Economy

Tech sell-off throws Wall Street to the ground – Bolsa

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Wall Street is drowning in recession fear.  S&P 500 at 14-month low - Stock Exchange

Major stocks across the Atlantic closed in negative territory and technology pulled Wall Street into the red. The report, which showed Americans more pessimistic about the outlook for the economy, didn’t help.

The Dow Jones industrial index fell 1.56% to 30,946.99 points, while the Standard & Poor’s 500 fell 2.01% to 3,821.55 points.

For its part, the Nasdaq Composite Technology Index fell 2.98% to 11,181.54. Despite this, it was the downfalls of giants like Amazon and Tesla that mostly took place.

Operators have taken another “reality shower” following a disturbing consumer confidence report, Bloomberg reports. The barometer of consumer expectations for economic development, reflecting a six-month forecast, fell to almost a decade’s low, discouraging investors.

The data comes at a time when analysts are still optimistic about corporate earnings in the quarter that is about to end, as record net profits are forecast for the S&P 500 group of companies.

However, the bleak economic outlook pushed Wall Street’s major indexes into negative territory after gaining about 1%.

The quarterly recovery in asset portfolios also caused volatility in Tuesday’s session.

For strategists at Goldman Sachs, earnings forecasts for companies this quarter are overly optimistic, which the bank says puts stocks at risk of further losses as Wall Street analysts cut their estimates.

Max Kettner, strategist at HSBC, also believes that stocks are not yet reflecting the impact of a potential recession and corporate results expectations are likely to be revised down.

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Pedro Braz Teixeira. “We are facing the first decarbonization energy crisis”

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Pedro Braz Teixeira. "Estamos perante a primeira crise energética da descarbonização"

















Faced with soaring energy prices, Pedro Braz Teixeira believes the best solution, instead of limiting imports, is for the EU to impose a tax on Russian imports, while “we continued to import the same amount of oil, but Russia got half of what he gets today” .

The new energy challenges were one of the topics of the debate organized by the Competitiveness Forum, moderated by Luis Mira Amaral. Jorge Mendonça y Costa, Executive Director of the Portuguese Association of Large Industrial Electricity Users, Ricardo Nunez, President of the Energy Traders Association, Pedro Sampaio Nunez, Former Secretary of State for Science and Innovation, and Pedro Neves Ferreira, Managing Director of Energy from EDP as speakers .

We are facing new energy challenges, but we are already seeing skyrocketing prices, especially with regard to fuel prices…

There is an important structure: we are facing the first energy crisis of decarbonization, which makes it especially difficult because it is an energy crisis in which we are trying to change the consumption pattern of the type of energy very quickly and perhaps we are trying to change too quickly. While everyone agrees on the need for decarbonization, the pace at which it is being planned does not seem very compatible with the technologies currently available because renewables have not gained much weight in recent decades and we are still very dependent on away from fossil fuels and wants a very fast transition. Even 2050 seems a little unrealistic.

And we’re already paying…

This energy crisis that we are experiencing began last spring, when there were a number of factors in the energy market that dictated these changes. The recovery of the economy along with the energy transition eventually made this worse, and for years we’ve been talking about decarburization, and it’s holding back investment in ancient fossil energy sources. I’m not going to explore new wells if I already know that I can’t sell them later.

So that led to a lot. This lack of planning results in us not having new energy because it takes a long time and we also don’t have old energy because we say the old has no future and therefore there is no investment in the old. . And at the same time, there is not enough energy on both sides, and when there is not enough energy, the price rises.

And now stakes like nuclear power and coal are back on the table…

The desire to go too fast repels us, but we cannot forget the problem of war. In fact, not only war, but also sanctions, because sanctions punish more than war. I am sincerely concerned about the sanctions. In this sixth round of sanctions, the EU wants to cut oil imports to Russia by 90% by the end of the year.

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And this is not enough time.

This is a huge amount of energy, and reaching this goal by the end of the year is unrealistic. It is very likely that we will have, especially with the approach of winter – when more energy is spent in Europe, namely for heating – a new increase in energy prices. By the way, this week we have new data and Russia is already cutting off gas supplies to Europe, which makes it clear that Europe will not be able to replenish its strategic gas reserves to weather the winter.

What I think will be on the table is that Russia is planning to take Europe to start the winter with a rope at its throat, with no reserves and no wiggle room, because it’s “plate won, plate worn out.” and Russia can cut off the gas supply at any time.

No plan B?

Oil and coal are two commodities that are easy to transport from one place to another. Of course, this is not the most practical solution, but we could import coal from Australia because it is physically possible. Now there is no gas, we need pipelines and liquefied gas, unlike oil, where no infrastructure needs to be built.

António Costa Silva has already proposed Sines as an alternative to gas.

Yes, but then there is no pipeline connection beyond the Pyrenees. This is a project that makes sense in the medium term but does not have an immediate response. I’m afraid that this winter we will have another surge in energy prices, then new pressure to raise interest rates, and soon we will have an economic slowdown. In fact, this week the chairman of the US Federal Reserve warned that there are factors beyond his control and that we could be in for inflationary surprises. Inflation is out of control and I see a very clear risk.

Is that why the Competitiveness Forum was more pessimistic than the government in terms of economic forecasts?

Because we are very concerned about the new increase in inflation.

Are we in danger of facing another crisis?

I would single out two aspects: on the one hand, the pandemic has brought an extraordinary innovation from the EU, in which they have finally managed to create a European responsibility, unlike what happened during the whole euro crisis, when they do not want to talk about it. And with the pandemic, European bonds were issued and this completely blocked path opened up. And if it was opened to help fight the pandemic, then it could also be opened to solve other European problems. Here we have a big advantage. In addition, we must be alert and be able to act very quickly. The euro crisis began in 2009 with the Greek elections, during which they revealed the whole financial situation, in which, after all, the Greek deficit was three or four times what they announced.

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What happened? Greece fell in May 2010, followed by Ireland and Portugal. It wasn’t until July 2012, after three rescues from three countries, that Mario Draghi started talking about the problem. Now the ECB got together, determined what the rate hike would be, and 10 days later the markets went crazy, leading the ECB to an emergency meeting and showing it was preparing a mechanism to be announced in July to prevent fragmentation. debt market, that is, to help Italy’s debt. Therefore, only after the announcement of this, the markets calmed down. This means that they are very attentive.

But, as a rule, exchanges react to problems in advance.

In the case of the markets, everything follows the American stock market. And the American stock market entered the so-called bear market, that is, where the bear hibernates and becomes negative. And when the market drops 20% from the previous high, that means you will enter a bear market, which is usually a very negative outlook. The US stock market, having infected everyone else, is negative about the outlook for the US economy, although here we must recall what Nobel laureate Paul Samuelson said: Stock markets have predicted nine of the last five recessions. .

Even now, BdP is forecasting growth of 6.3% this year and inflation of up to 5.9%. But after that, Mario Centeno said that he could not rule out the risk of a financial crisis…

Risk must be faced even as a risk, that is, it is not a certainty. Of course, it was possible to finally reach a peace agreement in Ukraine, but there is a risk that the situation will worsen. And when we talk about the financial crisis, it has more to do with the increase in interest rates in the eurozone, and Portugal will inevitably suffer, and with it there may be unrest. But I’m not so worried about the financial crisis, I’m more concerned about the energy issue, because the EU is stuck in this system of wanting to cut Russian imports by 90% by the end of the year.

Sanctions should hurt those who are subject to sanctions, not those who apply them. What is happening is that it will hurt us, and oil prices before the war were $60, and now $120, so Russia sells less, but sells twice as much. In other words, no more bills. There was a proposal that the EU, instead of restricting imports, introduce a tax on Russian imports. It so happened that we continued to import the same amount of oil, but Russia received half of what it receives today.

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Was it some kind of emergency tax?

It was a tax on oil exports. For example, Russia sells to India at a 25% discount, it’s like a tax. In other words, he sells to others at huge discounts.

This increase in energy costs is putting a burden on companies…

If this extraordinary tax were introduced, it would represent an extraordinary income for the entire treasury of all European countries. And at the same time, the margin for helping companies and families will be much larger. We see the opposite: we are paying with oil, half of which was state income.

And in the face of this increase in costs for companies, how do you feel about António Costa’s call for a 20% increase in wages for private workers?

This is an increase over five years and I divide this 20% over all the years it is not so significant, and in this year 2022 with inflation at such a level that 20% is the accumulated inflation over all these years.

The Competitiveness Forum was one of the first organizations to transition to the Recovery and Sustainability Plan payment deferral. How do you feel about Antonio Costa’s statements that “skepticism must be overcome”?

Portugal has been receiving European funds since 1981, so we have been receiving European funds for 41 years and we have had a stagnant economy for 20 years. I think it’s fair to think that we’re misusing European funds. And for at least 20 years we misused European funds, because when we received European funds, we had an obligation to move closer to Europe and not lose ground.

Over the past 20 years, we have misused European funds, and I apologize for this history of misuse of European funds and for the fact that PRR does not have a strategy based on economic growth, and therefore skeptical about the possibilities of PRR.

This is in line with what he was already defending when he said that “in recent decades everything has gone wrong in economic policy”…

It is not normal to use European funds. Portugal, even without European funds, was obliged to move closer to the European Union, because we are in a privileged space, we have the same currency, we have the same rules and we have the example of other countries. And even without European funds, we must move closer to Europe, and even with European funds we cannot do this.

Is income always the same regardless of the government?

Undoubtedly.



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