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Center Voting – Observer

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Center Voting - Observer

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Social classes are characteristic groups of industrial societies that have evolved since the 17th century. The problem of social classes, now out of use, is one of the most central and controversial in the social sciences. The existence of social classes is generally accepted, but much more controversial is the principle of their existence in constant struggle.

The analysis of social stratification in modern societies is complicated by the existence of status groups and social classes. To simplify, we can say, following Max Weber, that social classes are stratified according to their attitudes towards the production and acquisition of goods, while status groups are stratified according to their consumption of goods, represented by certain “lifestyles.” … The various classes, and especially the middle class, have been well studied. The growing complexity of social structures in modern and postmodern societies has revealed the heuristic inconsistency of the classical analysis of social stratification, and for several decades now we have seen a shift in the center of interest of sociologists to more cultural issues. ” materialistic ”, associated, namely, with identity, gender, ecology and social values.

Nonetheless, social classes continue to exist, albeit in a less visible form today. After its consolidation in the most developed countries in the 60s and 70s of the last century, mainly due to the penetration wealthy worker the middle class began slowly but steadily to lose its significance not only in quantitative terms, but also as an object of study. The erosion of the middle class helps explain the emergence of populist and extremist movements in the United States and several European countries. In Portugal, the long period of the autocratic regime and the leftist deviation of the political system after April 25th would have served as a brake on the emergence of this type of movement. In countries that were under the rule of the former Soviet Union for several decades, the opposite happened, with the emergence of extreme right, populist and nationalist movements.

In Portugal, public speeches and proclamations made so far by the leaders of the two main political parties indicate that, compared to previous legislative elections, both seek to reorient themselves, one starting with the right and the other with the left. We mean proclamations, not programs: programs are practically irrelevant, not only because no one reads them, but also because they will not be executed anyway. This reopening of the center by two parties fighting to rule the country paradoxically coincides with the historical moment when there was perhaps the greatest devastation of the social pyramid in its central area occupied by the middle class (s). This gap between the two centers, political and sociological, has always existed in Portugal, from the very beginning of the democratic regime, but it was, so to speak, “masked” by the emergence of an anemic and inconsistent middle class, but sometimes it seems that it is on the rise. The economic and social crises that have occurred in recent decades, and especially the current one associated with the pandemic that insidiously continues to torment us, exacerbated social inequality in Portuguese society and highlighted the weakness of the middle class and the fact that its growth, in the end, was only apparent …

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The erosion of the middle class is associated, on the one hand, with a decrease in upward social mobility – only an insignificant minority manages to climb the social ladder, perhaps even in an illegitimate way – and, on the other hand, with downward social mobility. which pushes the vast majority down the stairs, sometimes even into poverty. Therefore, it is appropriate to pose the following question: if the social center shifts, erodes and disappears, then who ultimately votes for the parties of the political center? The relevance of this issue is now reinforced by the publication of the latest poll results, which show that PS and PSD account for 70% of intent to vote. The answer to this question does not seem easy. Here we will try to give an answer, which, of course, does not pretend to be definitive. It is simply a matter of choosing an explanatory path among other possible paths that may be accepted or rejected. In our hypothesis, the “real” center under current conditions is replaced by an “imaginary”, illusory, extremely changeable center in which aggregates: those who do not admit descent and who believe that they are still “there”; those who do not deny the fall, but consider it only transitory and who will soon return to the place where they belong; and, of course, ordinary party voters, whatever their position in the social structure.

Voting is not simply “determined” by its place in the social structure. The voter has only limited rationality, and his choice is the result of a combination of many variables of different nature. These days, the act of voting seems increasingly detached from social identity, background, personal trajectories, and territorial ties, which helps explain the volatility of voters and the volatility of political relations. As can now be clearly seen in Portugal, the rapid increase in party supply matches the mobility and volatility of demand. However, an increase in supply is not necessarily associated with a qualitative improvement, as seen in interviews and debates so far. It would be illusory to think about the possibility of the emergence of an ideal political party capable of uniting in its ideas and realizing all our desires, aspirations and aspirations. Since the possibility of multi-party, “sectional” voting, choosing the best that each party can offer us, also does not seem viable, we will have to limit ourselves to what is available in the political market. What exists, in terms of supply, however, does not seem very attractive, judging by the speeches of political leaders in the election campaign. The format of the televised debates did not provide a clear presentation of proposals and the exchange of arguments, but it cannot serve as an excuse for the almost complete absence of topics that were and will certainly remain on the agenda in many forums held in various parts of the world. Topics such as climate change and environmental disasters, digital transition and energy transition can by no means be ignored these days.

In the center, to the right or to the left, all voices are equally legitimate! The main thing is that we vote!

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Politics

Se perder legislativas, Costa convocará eleições no PS mas não interferirá no processo, promete – Observador

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Se perder legislativas, Costa convocará eleições no PS mas não interferirá no processo, promete – Observador

Catarina garante que “OE e Governo terão de ser negociados” e acusa: “direita tem projeto de destruição do país, prefere falar de gatos”

Com o discurso da maioria absoluta arrumado na gaveta e um aparente sinal, mesmo que tímido, de que António Costa afinal vai querer negociar depois das eleições, Catarina Martins fala de uma espécie de nova etapa na campanha: “Já se percebeu que a ideia de maioria absoluta está abandonada, que o Orçamento terá de ser negociado, que vai ser preciso conversar a 31 de janeiro, que vai ser preciso negociar qual será o Governo da próxima legislatura”, disse esta manhã na feira de Vila do Prado, em Braga, embora recusando comentar mais em pormenor as declarações de Costa — “Não vou fazer a campanha sempre a comentar cada uma das declarações, porque se não passamos estes dias e nunca falamos de nada do que é fundamental.”

E o que é importante, na visão do Bloco, é discutir temas como os baixos salários em Portugal: Catarina Martins leu a notícia do Jornal de Notícias que hoje indicava que há cada vez mais pessoas a viver em caravanas, em parques de campismo, e referiu-a como um dos sinais de alerta. “Temos um país em que os salários são tão baixos que as pessoas não podem pagar uma renda de casa. Se alguém acha que o problema da Habitação é só do centro de Lisboa, desengane-se.” Para o Bloco, a solução será ter “a responsabilidade de ter uma política pública para a Habitação”, incluindo alterar a Lei das rendas e reforçar o parque público de habitação.

Catarina foi também questionada sobre o rumo da campanha, incluindo a predileção pelo gato de Rui Rio, Zé Albino, que tem sido referido praticamente todos os dias (e não só pelo PSD). “Há partidos que têm um problema: não podem dizer qual é o seu programa eleitoral Como é que a direita pode vir a umas eleições em que os salários e as pensões são baixos e vem dizer: o que nós queremos é congelarnio mírio salário, acabar com as poucas regras do trabalho que existem e é a lei da selva? A direita tem um projeto de destruição do país. Portanto preferem falar de gatos. É gato escondido com o rabo de fora”, atirou a líder bloquista.

Os ataques são nesta fase sobretudo dirigidos à direita, embora também tenha deixado uma farpa ao Sabemos que há tanta gente que não pode continuar assim, mas não é a direita que vai resolver. A resposta estará na força à esquerda e na força do BE para condicionar um contrato de Governo.”

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Moreau says MBL members are “good people” and admits approach

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Moreau says MBL members are "good people" and admits approach

Pre-candidate for President of the Republic Sergio Moro (Podemos) praised the members of the MBL (Movimento Brasil Livre) during an interview with the Flow podcast today. He confirmed a rapprochement with the group for this year’s election race.

“People are good. They are good people,” he said and added: “They were in the Movimento Brasil Livre, a movement of political activism, but did not get involved in politics, and they gradually came to understand that things don’t just change. There must be good people in politics.”

“There has to be pressure from society to change, but you also have to have people with that spirit of change. It may be an illusion, it may be a mistaken idealism.”
Sergio Moro (We can)

MBL is approaching Moro and Podemos

Last week, the MBL leaders confirmed they would be joining Podemos on January 26th. But going out to the party will have a “letter of independence” between the party and the group.

In addition to the Patriots, which includes most of the MBL members, there are members in other parties such as PSL, Democratas and Novo, and they are also expected to move to the Moro party.

Through Podemos, MBL will run for the government of Sao Paulo, led by State MP Artur do Val (Patriota-SP). In a dispute for a seat in the Senate, the group must have state deputy Heni Ozi Tsukye (Novo). Together with them, the group will form a platform in the state of São Paulo for the Moros in the dispute over the Plateau.

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The approximation, however, comes from last year. In November 2021, Moro was at the 6th National Congress of the Movement for a Free Brazil. At the end of the event, the former judge was introduced at the event by MBL leader Adelaide Oliveira as “Brazil’s next president”.

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Portugal sem representação política nos Jogos de Inverno de Pequim

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An expired Citizen Card is used to travel and apply to reside in the United Kingdom.

“Portugal não terá representação política na cerimónia de abertura ou na cerimónia de encerramento dos Jogos Olímpicos de Inverno, e estamos também a coordenar-nos com os demais Estados europeus nessa matéria, mas não teremos representação política na cerimónia de abertura ou na cerimónia de encerramento “, declarou o chefe da diplomacia portuguesa.

Santos Silva, que falava aos jornalistas após participar numa reunião dos ministros dos Negócios Estrangeiros da UE, justificou a ausência com “várias razões”, desde “o momento político que se vive em Portugal” ao “sentido de unidade próprio da União Europeia” nas atuais “circunstâncias”, admitindo também o peso que tem o facto de os Jogos Olímpicos de Inverno não serem, “do ponto de vista, desportivo “o alfa eo omega” do desporto nacional”.

Depois de, na semana passada, o Parlamento Europeu ter apelado a um boicote diplomático e político dos Jogos Olímpicos de Inverno de Pequim, face às tentativas da China de “legitimar o seu sistema autoritário”, Santos Silva confirmou que “há uma coordenação que se esta a fazer [entre os 27], respeitando evidentemente todos os interesses de cada Estado-membro”.

“Por exemplo, sei que alguns Estados europeus se farão representar ao nível de ministro do Desporto dada a dimensão da sua representação desportiva. Outros far-se-ão representar apenas ao nível de embaixador, e, como é habitual nestas coisas, mesmo quando a decisão é nacional, nós concertamos sempre posições e é isso que estamos a fazer”, disse.

Quanto à posição portuguesa, atribuiu-a então ao “sentido de unidade próprio da UE e também o que é típico da diplomacia não-confrontacional que Portugal pratica”, voltando a recordar o “momento político que se vive em Portugal, e que se viverá nas próximas semanas”, com a realização de eleições legislativas no próximo domingo, 30 de janeiro.

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“Entendemos que uma representação ao nível ministerial ou de membro do Governo não seria a solução apropriada”, concluiu.

Vários países, como o Reino Unido, Estados Unidos, Canadá e Austrália, entre outros, anunciaram um boicote diplomático aos Jogos de Pequim, sem prejudicar a participação dos atletas desses países, para denunciar alegadas violaçõesima dos direitos humanos na China, e na quinta últ -feira o Parlamento Europeu também recomendou aos Estados-membros um “boicote diplomático e político aos Jogos Olímpicos de Inverno de Pequim 2022”, que decorrem entre 04 e 20 de fevereiro.

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