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The title of “honorary doctor” was used in the political platform.



Como o título de “doutor honoris causa” tem sido usado para palanque político e ideológico

What do former President Luis Inacio Lula da Silva (PT) and the Dalai Lama have in common? No, this is not the beginning of a bad joke – or at least not only that. These characters, whose biographies have little in common, have something that unites them: they are both doctors. Although they never attended classes, received no credits, and even more so did not defend a thesis, they, like some other personalities, were awarded the title of “doctor” by universities. honoris causa“. But in the end, what is it and how does it work in practice? And why does the tribute sometimes seem unfair?

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The Latin expression refers to a title given “in honor,” that is, in recognition of a person’s excellence in a particular field or field of knowledge. This is very different from a Ph.D. degree obtained in the traditional way, which requires many years of study. Usually, after graduation, a candidate for a doctorate in a specific field must first earn a master’s degree, which lasts an average of two years. Then, at least four more years will be devoted to research, which will be completed only after preparation, presentation, defense and approval of the thesis in front of their peers.

As explained by Professor Amilcar Bayardi, who taught at the Federal University of Reconcavo da Bahia (UFRB) and the Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), when there were no doctoral programs, the title of doctor was awarded to anyone who publicly defended a thesis demonstrating knowledge that matched the title. It was not necessary to graduate from the university. “This title was awarded to everyone, with or without academic interest, who wanted to publicly demonstrate erudition in a particular topic,” explains the professor. In part, this old idea of ​​awarding the title of doctor to those who, despite the fact that they did not study at the university, have achieved outstanding results in any field, is saved by the title of doctor. honoris causa

At the University of Brasilia (UnB), for example, the title is given to “a person who has distinguished himself by his knowledge and / or achievements in the field of art, science, philosophy, writing or better understanding between peoples”. Since the inception of the university in 1962, the institution has awarded 58 doctoral degrees. honoris causa… Most of them have been proposed to researchers and scientists of undeniable importance in their fields, such as Albert Sabin, the Nobel Prize winner for the development of a vaccine against polio. But what is striking is the number of titles awarded to politicians, especially presidents and foreign leaders.

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The university honored, for example, General Charles de Gaulle, President of France from 1959 to 1964. The French, in fact, was the first laureate of this institution to receive this title in 1964. Jose López Portillo, President of Mexico, was also honored from 1976 to 1982; Juan Carlos I de Bourbon and Bourbon, King of Spain from 1974 to 2014; Raul Alfonsin, President of Argentina from 1983 to 1989; Julio Sanguinetti, twice President of Uruguay, from 1985 to 1990, and from 1995 to 2000; Michelle Bachelet, former President of Chile, who ruled the country for two terms, the first from 2006 to 2010 and then from 2014 to 2018. There are no Brazilian politicians among the recipients of the UnB award.

Political use

In theory, this is all legal. The problem is that, even without openly acknowledging, the headlines honoris causa in universities, they serve not only to recognize the work of important people. They were also used for political or advertising purposes. For example, universities usually honor foreign heads of state, especially countries with which they maintain (or wish to have) some kind of ties. This has been controversial, such as granting a title at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) to Chinese dictator Xi Jinping in 2019, especially given that the institution revoked the title in 2015. honoris causa awarded to Emilio Garraztaz de Medici, President of Brazil during the military dictatorship and recently to Jarbas Passarinho.

As anthropologist Louis Mott points out, there is a lot of controversy over this honor that he believes should be better discussed by the academy. Mott cites as an example some homage to the Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), where he was a professor until his retirement. The university was one of those who were awarded the title honoris causa former President Lula.

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“We have politicians who have up to three dozen doctoral degrees. honoris causa… these universities [que os homenageiam] they are driven by questionable populism and fad. Lula is one of them, ”says the professor.

And Mott is right. The former president is one of the Brazilians who have received this title the most, with 36 in total, of which 14 are from Brazilian universities. Anyone who goes to his official site will find a specific page on the topic. The text says that he received more titles, “but the former president was unable to come to receive them all.” Lula was imprisoned from April 7, 2018 to November 2019, on charges of passive corruption and money laundering. He was released following a decision by the Supreme Court (STF), which overturned the imprisonment of convicts in the second instance. During this period, obviously, he could not participate in activities. “Populist deans at universities equipped with left-wing parties have been doing this for a long time. Unfortunately, this deviation has long roots and is related to political physiology, ”says Bayardi.

Another Brazilian with several honoris causa Paulo Freire, whose contribution to education is in doubt: he has received 14 awards from Brazilian universities and 20 from foreign institutions. Another former president, Fernando Henrique Cardoso (PSDB), is also among the most respected Brazilians with 29 titles. honoris causa

Awards to representatives of social and identity movements

The awarding of graduate degrees has also been used to reinforce the ideologies prevailing in universities. As Mott explains, it is now “in vogue” for universities to honor people associated with social and identity movements, even if they do not have a relevant job or significant contribution to any field.

In the UFBA, for example, by officially conferring the title honoris causa it can be provided only to “national and foreign figures whose contribution to the development of science, literature, art, education, culture, technology and innovation, public policy, human rights and social development is considered high. relevant for a country or humanity. “.

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In addition to Lula, the university felt that artists such as Jorge Amado, Maria Betania and Cayetano Veloso, the ceramist Ricardina Pereira da Silva, known as Dona Cadu, and the Bahia cattle breeder João Batista de Andrade, among others, met these requirements.

“Recently, there has been a tendency to grant titles to individuals representing social minorities such as Mahe de Santo, indigenous peoples and Quilombola. If so, it would be best if they were equally distributed so that all minorities have members who stand out for their humanistic behavior, ”says Mott.

give and take

Just as they are autonomous in defining criteria and choosing those who are awarded titles honoris causauniversities can also revoke titles that have already been awarded. This happened, for example, with Yarbas Passarinho. Minister of Education during the military dictatorship under General Costa e Silva received the title of doctor. honoris causa from UFRJ as well as from the State University of Campinas (Unicamp) in 1973. In 2021, both universities decided to “withdraw” this award. The argument was the same: Passarinho’s support for the military regime and, in particular, AI-5, which strengthened the actions of the dictatorship and suppressed freedom of speech and press in Brazil. If we look at the example already mentioned by Xi Jinping in UFPR, there are two weights and two measures.

According to Mott, it is natural to want to “reconsider” the granting of certain titles offered to individuals, especially when tributes have been paid to politicians. He even advocates for a general scrutiny to “erase” titles given to those proven not to deserve this honor, such as people who have been involved in human rights abuses.

“It’s time to think about a national bond clearance policy. honoris causa in Brazil. In the gym, you need to conduct a nationwide consultation, but with different weights, ”explains the anthropologist. In his opinion, the academic community itself, especially those with the necessary experience in fields of knowledge, such as doctors and researchers, could assess who really deserves a degree. honoris causa.

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The dollar continues to reflect the political scenario



The dollar continues to reflect the political scenario

Yesterday, financial agents evaluated the opposite decision of the Federal Supreme Court (STF) regarding the so-called secret budget. In addition, a decision was made by STF Minister Gilmar Méndez to issue an injunction that would exclude the Bolsa Família from the spending cap rule, with investors trying to understand how this measure would affect the processing of the transitional PEC in the Chamber of Deputies. Oh this PEC!!!!

Since he is an exchange investor, any reading that the budget will be exceeded or become more flexible will negatively affect the exchange market, whether through the PEC or in any other way. We will continue with volatility today.

Looking beyond, the US Central Bank (Fed), although slowing down the pace of monetary tightening at its December meeting, issued a tougher-than-expected statement warning that its fight against inflation was not yet over, raising fears that rising US interest rates will push the world’s largest economy into recession.

The currency market continues to react to political news. The voting on the PEC is saved for today. It is expected that it will indeed be reviewed to open the way tomorrow for discussions on the 2023 budget.

Yesterday, the spot price closed the selling day at R$5.3103.

For today on the calendar we will have an index of consumer confidence in the eurozone. Good luck and good luck in business!!

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Andrés Sánchez consults with the Ministry of Sports, but refuses a political post.



The former president of the Corinthians dreams of working for the CBF as a national team coordinator. He was consulted shortly after Lula’s election.

Former Corinthians president Andrés Sánchez was advised to take a position in the Ministry of Sports under the administration of Lula (PT). However, he ruled out a return to politics. dreams of taking over the coordination of CBF selectionHow do you know PURPOSE.

No formal invitation was made to the former Corinthian representative, only a consultation on a portfolio opportunity with the new federal government, which will be sworn in on January 1, 2023.

Andrés was the Federal MP for São Paulo from 2015 to 2019. At that time he was elected by the Workers’ Party. However, the football manager begs to stay in the sport, ruling out the possibility of getting involved in politics again.

Andrés Sanchez’s desire is to fill the position of CBF tackle coordinator, which should become vacant after the 2022 World Cup. Juninho Paulista fulfills this function in Brazil’s top football institution.

The former president of Corinthians was in Qatar to follow the World Cup along with other figures in Brazilian football. During his time in the country, he strengthened his ties with the top leadership of the CBF.

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The EU has reached a political agreement on limiting gas prices – 19.12.2022



Germany sentenced Russian to life imprisonment for political murder by order of Moscow - 12/15/2021
BRUSSELS, DECEMBER 19 (ANSA). European Union countries reached a political agreement on Monday (19) to impose a natural gas price ceiling of 180 euros per megawatt hour (MWh). The main sources of income for Russia and the minimization of the use of energy as a weapon by the regime of Vladimir Putin.

The agreement was approved by a supermajority at a ministerial meeting of member states in Brussels, Belgium, after months of discussions about the best way to contain the rise in natural gas prices in the bloc caused by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. .

The value set by the countries is well below the proposal made by the European Commission, the EU’s executive body, in November: 275 EUR/MWh. However, the countries leading the cap campaign were in favor of an even lower limit, around 100 EUR/MWh.

Germany, always wary of price controls, voted in favor of 180 euros, while Austria and the Netherlands, also skeptical of the cap, abstained. Hungary, the most pro-Russian country in the EU, voted against.

The instrument will enter into force on 15 February, but only if natural gas prices on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange exceed 180 euros/MWh for three consecutive days. In addition, the difference compared to a number of global benchmarks should be more than 35 euros.

Italy, the EU’s biggest supporter of the ceiling, has claimed responsibility for the measure. “This is a victory for Italy, which believed and worked for us to reach this agreement,” Environment and Energy Minister Gilberto Picetto tweeted.

“This is a victory for Italian and European citizens who demand energy security,” he added.

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Currently, the gas price in Amsterdam is around 110 EUR/MWh, which is already a reflection of the agreement in Brussels – in August the figure even broke the barrier of 340 EUR/MWh.

However, Russia has already threatened to stop exports to countries that adhere to the ceiling. (ANSA).

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