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Portuguese Democratic Regime “Failed in Sensitive Areas”

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Portuguese Democratic Regime "Failed in Sensitive Areas"

The Global State of Democracy Report shows that Portugal was the only country in Western Europe to experience a drop in three parameters measuring the quality of democracy.

The report of the International Institute for Democracy and Social Security (International IDEA) based in Stockholm – measures democratic performance in 158 countries since 1975 and seeks to diagnose the state of democracies around the world.

Overall, the report shows that the world is becoming more authoritarian, and democratic governments are retreating, resorting to repressive methods and weakening the rule of law.

About Portugal, the report concludes that the democratic regime has failed in sensitive areas – independence of the judiciary, absence of corruption and equality before the law – this is the only country in Western Europe that recorded a drop in three parameters of assessment.

Eastern Europe has countries like Hungary, Poland and Slovenia that fell in four dimensions, but in the west, the Portuguese regime was the worst compared to the 2019 report.

However, in terms of various dimensions for measuring the state of democracy, Portugal scores positively against the average of the Western European group, which includes Germany, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland or the United Kingdom, and even outperforms the Southern European group. middle – where it is located, next to Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Spain and Turkey.

In terms of government representation, Portugal received 0.87 points versus 0.84 for Western Europe and 0.80 for Southern Europe; in terms of election transparency, Portugal’s rating is 0.92 versus 0.90 for Western Europe and 0.84 for Southern Europe; in terms of freedom of political parties, Portugal received 0.79 points against 0.76 for Western Europe and 0.75 for Southern Europe; and in the area of ​​civil liberties, Portugal’s rating is 0.89 versus 0.87 for Western Europe and 0.75 for Southern Europe.

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The weaknesses of the Portuguese democratic regime are mainly manifested in areas where the country has failed since 2019.

In access to justice, Portugal scored just 0.71 points.against 0.87 for Western Europe and 0.74 for Southern Europe; in the field of judicial independence, Portugal’s score is 0.74against 0.78 in Western Europe and 0.64 in Southern Europe; in the absence of corruption, Portugal’s score is 0.66against 0.85 for Western Europe and 0.62 for Southern Europe; and further civil society participation, Portugal score – 0.58against 0.81 for Western Europe and 0.62 for Southern Europe.

Portugal has seen a slight decline in three dimensions – judicial independence, lack of corruption and equality before the law – compared to the previous 2019 report, which was based on pre-pandemic data.

“Portugal remains in the intermediate group for the quality of democracy. And she even shows very positive indicators on several parameters. The biggest weakness appears to be in the administration of justice and efforts to combat corruption, ”said Kevin Luce Casas. -Zamora, Secretary General of the International IDEA.

In terms of corruption, Casas Zamora attributes more alarming signs of increasing public awareness of the problem in Portugal. “As far as we can tell, there have been a number of judicial investigations that have revealed serious problems with corruption. with the participation of judges and high-ranking politicians, “concluded the Secretary General of the organization responsible for the report.

More than two-thirds of the world’s population lives in countries that are retreating from democracy.

The health crisis may have had a negative impact on Portuguese democracy, as has happened in many countries around the world, researchers at International IDEA conclude.

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This year’s version shows that the number of democracies that have experienced setbacks has doubled over the past decade, including countries such as the United States and some European Union countries such as Hungary, Poland and Slovenia.

Faced with this situation, the report reveals that more than two-thirds of the world’s population currently live in retreating democracies or autocratic regimes.

The document also shows that the number of countries moving towards authoritarianism in 2020 exceeded the number of those moving towards democracywhen the world is losing democratic regimes due to incorrect elections or military coups.

The Covid-19 pandemic has exacerbated this global democratic crisis, the report concludes, which shows that 64% of countries analyzed have taken at least one measure to contain the spread of the new coronavirus, which could be considered disproportionate, unnecessary or illegal.

Even so, some democracies have capitalized on the pandemic by introducing or expanding democratic innovation in their systems and adopting transparent methods to tackle the health crisis and conduct elections in challenging environments in the face of misinformation threats.

“The political imperfections and social rifts exposed by the pandemic will push more people towards populist and authoritarian leaders who rarely apply durable solutions to citizens’ problems,” explained IDEA International Secretary General Kevin Casas-Zamora.

In a positive sense The report shows that there have been many examples of the strength of civic engagement around the world over the past few months.through pro-democracy movements in countries such as Belarus, Cuba, Myanmar (formerly Burma) and Sudan.

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In the Asia-Pacific region, IDEA International found a “rising tide of authoritarianism” with crises affecting Afghanistan, Hong Kong and Myanmar, as well as “erosion” in India, the Philippines and Sri Lanka. general democracy “.

In Africa and the Middle East, the report refers to “the recent decline of democracy,” highlighting four military coups that overthrew regimes that used democratic methods: Chad, Guinea, Conakry, Mali and Sudan.

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Language policy in party election programs

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Language policy in party election programs

Opening the last week of the election campaign and having voted in advance, I decided to share the results of my reading of the electoral programs (or similar) of the main parties in relation to official languages ​​(Portuguese) and with official recognition (Portuguese Sign Language, LGP and Mirandese). I limited the analysis (but not the reading) to the four most voted parties in 2019: PS, PSD, BE, and PCP; I used “língua”, “português”, “gestual portuguesa” (LGP), “mirandês” and their synonyms as search expressions. The goal is to understand the importance that each side attaches to language(s) and language policy.

PCP Presents Electoral Commitmentwhere it shapes the 2022 elections and resumes Election program for 2019, of 114 pages. In this “language” appears five times, twice in support of “learning [gratuito] Portuguese as mother tongue among expatriate communities” and three in “Valuing the Portuguese language and culture”. LGP and Mirandese do not occur. The documents use the spelling standard of 1945 (as well as CDS-PP Electoral Commitment, 14 pages).

Not Election program 2022-2026, from the British Empire, on 203 pages, “language” occurs six times, which is associated with increased teaching and access to LGP, with immigrant communities (Portuguese and native languages, in bilingual education) and once with reference to the free teaching of Portuguese for second generation immigrants.

OUR Electoral program 2022 PSD, 165 pages, never mentioned Mirandese or LGP; the Portuguese language is mentioned seven times, and the document contains a theme called “Language”, which proclaims: “Portuguese is an expression of our collective identity and of Portugal’s presence on a global scale, as well as differences in the use of the Portuguese language. don’t impoverish it (…) The attempt at orthographic standardization offered no advantage in the face of a globalized world, so PSD advocates assessing the real impact of the new [??!!] spelling convention” [sic] (CDS-PP is strongly in favor of abolishing it, and I would like to see some of the studies evaluating its impact.) In another paragraph, starting with the words “Portugal can never neglect lusophony”. [sic], advocates “concrete efforts (…) to raise the status of Portuguese to an official language of the United Nations” (only PSD uses the term “lusophonia”). The remaining references refer to basic education and immigrant communities, as well as to Portuguese-speaking African countries.

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Not PS campaign program, 122 pages of compact text, the search expression “language” occurs 26 times. There is talk of LGP dissemination and interpretation in government services; “Mirandes” is not found. The role of the Portuguese language in establishing Portugal in the world is clearly appreciated through its internationalization in the context of strengthening the CPLP, namely in connection with the International Portuguese Language Institute, relations with UNESCO and OEI. , under the control of the Ministries of Foreign Affairs and Culture. The teaching of Portuguese as a native and non-native language (for emigrants and immigrants) is carried out at all levels of education. The text contains several concrete proposals for action.

Of course, much more can be said, and reading this text is not intended to devalue (rather, promote) the reading of election programs. The choice is up to everyone. Voting is free and voting is an act of citizenship.

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The Portuguese government plans to double spending on research and development

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The Portuguese government plans to double spending on research and development

The leaders want national R&D spending to be 3% of GDP by 2030.

The Portuguese government has agreed to nearly double the country’s spending on research and development by 2030, the EU’s long-term goal of 3% of GDP.

The December 29 resolution called for government spending on R&D to reach 1% of GDP by 2030, with the remaining 2% added to private spending.

In 2020, public and private spending on R&D was 0.66% and 0.96% of GDP, respectively, which means that public spending will more than halve and private spending will double.

With rising costs, the government has promised reforms and modernization of the R&D sector in Portugal. He said the resolution would support the promotion of a culture of innovation and science and help stimulate the restructuring of the knowledge-based economy.

Last year, Government says Portugal’s spending on research and development has increased five years in a row, reaching a record 3.3.2 billion by 2020. He said the growth was mainly driven by the business sector.

The EU as a whole has set a goal of spending 3% of its GDP on research and development, but for decades it has struggled for more than 2% to cover real costs. By 2020, R&D spending has decreased by $1 billion., but it increased to 2.3% of GDP as the economy contracted due to the government-19 epidemic.

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Former Portugal international Lima Pereira dies at 69

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Former Portugal international Lima Pereira dies at 69

Lima Pereira, the Portuguese international who distinguished himself in the 1980s with Porto, died this Saturday at the age of 69 after a long illness.

At one time he was one of the best Portuguese players in the central defender position. António José Lima Pereira was born in Povoa de Varzim on February 1, 1952. He graduated from Varzim and played there in the early years of his senior career. In 1978 he moved to Porto and his journey was very successful. His name is associated with some of the most brilliant moments in the history of the dragon emblem, such as winning the European Cup and Intercontinental Cup in 1987 and the European Super Cup in 1988. In 11 seasons (265 games), he also won 4 championships. , three national Supercups and 2 Portuguese Cups. He ended his career with Maya in 1991. “I knew how to exemplify the values ​​of Porto,” Pinto da Costa wrote in a social media post.

Lima Pereira, who represented the national team 20 times, suffered a stroke in 2006.

testimony
Jorge Amaral, former Porto player
“He personified the spirit of Porto and the North. He was a friend of his friends and had an enviable sense of humor. A loss he regrets.”

Octavio Machado, former player and coach of FC Porto
“A champion who celebrated all who had the honor of living with him. We already miss him.”

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