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Human presence found in the Azores years before the arrival of the Portuguese

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Ebad notice, CIBIO-Azores explains that the study reconstructed the conditions in which the Azores were first settled and the impact of the human presence on the ecosystems of the archipelago.

One of the main findings of the investigation, published in the journal PNAS, is that The first evidence of human presence on the islands was discovered 700 years before the arrival of the Portuguese in the 15th century, namely on the island of Santa Maria in 1427 and on the islands of Corvo and Flores in 1452.

The study also suggests, based on various models to determine weather conditions, that the first settlers of the archipelago were “probably” from Northern Europe and found “favorable climatic conditions for sailing to the Azores at the end of the high Middle Ages due to the prevalence of north-east winds and weakening of the west”.

“The published work records the arrival of the first settlers to the islands at the end of the high Middle Ages,” emphasizes CIBIO – Azores, adding that the investigation contradicts the consensus that the archipelago was never inhabited before the arrival of the Portuguese. …

Cited in the statement, Pedro Raposeiro, a researcher at the Azores Center and first author of the article, emphasizes that the investigation “demonstrates the importance of promoting interdisciplinary research between the natural sciences and the humanities” so that there is “a wider field of action.” a vision of what really happened in the past. “

Researchers analyzed and dated, using geological, chemical, physical and biological methods, five soundings of sediments recovered from the bottom of lakes in the islands of San Miguel, Pico, Terceira, Flores and Corvo.

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“They found sterols in lake sediments, a very abundant fraction of organic matter in mammalian feces and coprophilic bottom, which are interpreted as indicators of human activity,” the center explains.

Also quoted in the statement is Timothy Shanahang, a researcher at the University of Texas (United States of America), explains that mammalian gut produces “abundant fecal sterols and stanols, which are well preserved in lake sediments and are a unique and unambiguous indicator of their presence among large mammals in certain periods of the past ”.

“In addition, the compounds made by the intestines of humans and cattle are different, which allows us to distinguish between them,” he says.

Santiago Giralt, one of the main authors of the article, adds that due to their geographic location, the islands of the Azores “were not inhabited by large mammals” and that the appearance of “coprostanol in sediments” could be attributed to the presence of humans and stigmastanol in ruminants such as cows. goats or sheep. “

Based on the study of pollen, fossil plant fragments and coal residues present in the sediments, the study also characterized the impact of early human activities on the island’s ecosystems, which led to “profound ecological and ecological changes.”

“Although historical sources describe the Azores as densely forested and pristine, this work highlights the discrepancy that exists between the fossil record and the historical record that most often serves as a reference point for identifying pristine ecosystems,” says Pedro Raposeiro.

In addition to researchers from the University of the Azores Center, research in Portugal was carried out in collaboration with the Portuguese Institute of Sea and Atmosphere (IPMA), Don Luis Institute, University of Lisbon and the University of Évora.

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Experts from Geosciences Barcelona (GEO3BCN-CSIC), Institute of Science and Technology of the Autonomous University of Barcelona, ​​Center for Environmental Research and Applications in Forestry (CREAF), Institute for Marine Research (IIM-CSIC) National Museum of Natural Sciences (MNCN-CSIC), University of La -Coruna (UC), University of Barcelona (UB), University of Texas, Brown University of the United States of America, NIOZ (Netherlands), University of Amsterdam (Netherlands), University of Bern (Switzerland) and Edith Cowen University (Australia).

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Kyiv is negotiating with Moscow on the release of foreign fighters – News

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Moscow is holding captive “thousands” of Ukrainians and “military personnel from all over the world who have volunteered” to defend Ukraine, Zelensky reminded in statements to the US television channel NBC.

The head of the Ukrainian state thanked for the support of volunteer fighters, whom he considers “heroes”, and confirmed that negotiations are underway to release those who were captured.

“Everyone understands that the war in Ukraine today is here on this earth, but tomorrow it can happen anywhere in Europe, and the “day after tomorrow” can happen in the United States,” the Ukrainian president said.

Thus, he added, “it would be absolutely fair to say that the war in Ukraine is already a war in Europe and the United States, only – territorially – it is happening here.”

Zelenskiy’s announcement came on the same day that the defense of British citizen Sean Pinner, who was sentenced to death in the self-proclaimed Donetsk People’s Republic in eastern Ukraine, announced that he had appealed the sentence.

Pinner, 48, was sentenced to death on June 9, along with fellow Briton Aiden Aislin, 28, and Moroccan citizen Braquim Saadoun, after being found guilty of participating in hostilities “as mercenaries” in support of Ukrainian forces.

Two Britons were captured by Russian forces during Moscow’s siege of the Ukrainian city of Mariupol on the Sea of ​​Azov, Brakim Saadoun was taken prisoner in March.

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Turkey lifts veto on Swedish and Finnish membership in NATO

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Turkey lifted its veto on Finland and Sweden joining NATO on Tuesday.

The leaders of the three countries met on the sidelines of the NATO summit in Madrid.

NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg has announced that Turkey has lifted its veto on Finland and Sweden joining the Atlantic Alliance after signing a memorandum that “answers Ankara’s concerns.”

“We have completed a very constructive meeting with the President [da Turquia, Recep Tayyip] Erdogan or President [da Finlândia, Sauli] Niinistö and the Prime Minister [da Suécia, Magdalena] Andersson, and I am pleased to announce that we have reached an agreement that paves the way for Sweden and Finland to join NATO,” Stoltenberg said.

The Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) spoke at a press conference at the Exhibition Park of Madrid, in the northeast of the Spanish capital, where the summit of the leaders of the North Atlantic Alliance is taking place.

MADRNATO/POOL/Anadolu Agency via Getty Images

Sweden and Finland applied to join NATO on May 18 after the Russian invasion of Ukraine ended the historic policy of neutrality.

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G20 summit: Draghi says Putin’s personal involvement ruled out

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Italian Prime Minister Mario Draghi said on Tuesday that the presence of Russian President Vladimir Putin at the next G20 summit in Bali was ruled out by the Indonesian presidency of the body.

At the summit of the group of seven most industrialized countries of the world (G7), which ended this Tuesday in Germany, they asked about The Kremlin’s announcement that Putin would attend the Bali summit in November, Draghi said that Indonesian President Joko Widodo ruled out the possibility.

Widodo “was categorical: he [Putin] not to come. What could happen – I don’t know what will happen, but what it could happen, maybe it’s remote interference“said Draghi, whose the country will hand over the G20 presidency to Indonesia in Bali.

The information has not been This was stated by the head of the Indonesian state, Joko Widodo. who will meet on Tuesday in Kyiv with his Ukrainian counterpart in an attempt to achieve a ceasefire in the conflict caused by the Russian invasion.

Joko Widodo, who attended Monday’s G7 summit in Germany, is already on his way to Kyiv, Indonesian Foreign Minister Retno Marsudi said. accompanies the head of state in a video message.

After a visit to Ukraine and meeting with President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelensky, The Indonesian leader is heading to Russia, where he will meet with Putin on Thursday, becoming the first Asian leader to visit the two countries since the start of the Russian invasion of Ukraine on February 24.

Before leaving on Sunday, Widodo said he was going to ask Zelensky and Putin an immediate ceasefire and the search for a peace agreement through dialogue.

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in spite of pressure from countries such as the US, Canada and Australia to keep Putin out of the G20 summit from 11 to 13 November.on the island of Bali, Indonesia still retains its invitation to the Russian leader.

In April, the President of Indonesia, publicly known as Jokowi, sent Zelensky a G20 invitation and said Indonesia was ready to “contribute to the peace effort”.

In the past decade, Russia has been excluded from the group of industrialized countries then known as the G8, renamed the G7 after the 2014 invasion of the Ukrainian Crimean peninsula.

with LUSA

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