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David Julius and Ardem Pataputyan received the Nobel Prize in Medicine



According to the Nobel Committee, “their discoveries made it possible to understand heat, cold and mechanical force that can initiate nerve impulses that allow us to perceive and adapt to the world.”


“This knowledge is being used to develop treatments for a wide range of diseases, including chronic pain,” adds the Nobel Committee.

Scientists working at centers in California have discovered a thermal sensation mechanism with pores in the brain that trigger pain sensations and protective motor reflexes.

Our ability to feel warmth, cold, and touch is essential to survival and is at the heart of our interactions with the world around us. In everyday life, we take these sensations for granted, but how are nerve impulses excited so that we can feel the temperature and pressure? This issue has been resolved by this year’s Nobel laureates, ”says the Nobel Prize Awarding Committee.

David Julius, a 65-year-old professor at the University of California, used capsaicin, the active ingredient in pepper that makes it hot, causing a burning sensation, to identify a sensor in the nerve endings of the skin that reacts to heat.

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Ardem Pataputyan was born in Beirut, Lebanon in 1967, but moved to the United States as a young man and now works as a scientist at the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California. He used pressure-sensitive cells to discover a new class of sensors that respond to mechanical stimuli in the skin and organs.

Last year, the Nobel Prize in Medicine was awarded to three scientists for the discovery of the hepatitis C virus.

History of the Nobel Prizes

Alfred Nobel was the Swedish scientist and industrialist responsible for the Nobel Prize Initiative, which recognizes individuals or institutions for their discoveries or outstanding contributions to various fields.

In 1985, a year before his death, Alfred Nobel defined this initiative in his will.

According to the terms of the will, about SEK 31.5 million, which is today the equivalent of SEK 2.2 billion (€ 203 million), was allocated to a kind of fund, the share of which was redistributed annually “among those who have provided the greatest services to humanity during the year. “.

The will stipulated that the interest on the invested capital would be distributed between the author of the most important discovery or invention of the year in the field of physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, as well as the most outstanding literary work inspired by idealists.

The last part can be attributed to the person who, to a greater or greater extent, contributed to the “rapprochement of peoples.”

The awards ceremony is held annually on December 10, on the anniversary of the death of Alfred Nobel.

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Pastor shot dead after refusing to pay €1.61 ​​for electrical repairs



The pastor of the church and another man were shot dead in palmas, in southern Parana, Brazil, after refusing to pay 10 reais (€1.61 ​​at current exchange rates) for a neighbor’s electrical repairs.

On Friday evening, the church, to which the pastor’s house is attached, stopped working the power supply system. The pastor decided to find a neighbor who could make repairs, and the man asked for 10 reais (1.61 euros) for the service, and the pastor said he would not pay, G1.

According to witnesses, after the refusal to pay, confusion began between those involved and other intervening people.

A few minutes later the man returned with two brothers who started shooting at people in front of the church. Four men aged 21, 22, 25 and 32 were shot dead, and a 25-year-old man died. The suspect in the shooting at the group was also shot, and shot in the stomach.

Early on Saturday morning, four hooded men approached the pastor’s home and killed him with more than 10 shots, according to police.

The municipal police said that residents of the community rioted against the suspects in the murder of the pastor and set fire to the house of one of them.

The case is under investigation.

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A 67-year-old man underwent surgery to remove a hernia, and doctors discovered he had a uterus and ovaries.



A 67-year-old father of three was admitted to a hospital in Kosovo, Russia, for a hernia operation, and doctors found that the patient had a uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, and was missing a testicle.

Doctors have diagnosed a man with normal male genitalia as having persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS), an extremely rare condition that occurs when men also have female reproductive organs along with a penis and scrotum.

Symptoms of the disease include testicular retraction and inguinal hernias, but female organs are usually not discovered unless surgery is performed to treat the mass. Only 200 cases have been reported in the medical literature. Daily mail.

The case was published in a magazine Urology Case Reports doctors working at the University of Pristina in Kosovo.

The patient had suffered for 10 years from a lump that enlarged when he stood up or coughed, and was diagnosed with an inguinal hernia, which occurs when tissue penetrates the groin at the top of the inner thigh.

It is estimated that 30 to 80% of PMDS patients have an inguinal hernia, infertility, or pseudohermaphroditism.

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Britain says Russia wants to install a pro-Russian leader in Ukraine



On Saturday, the UK said it had information indicating that Russia wants to install a pro-Russian leader in Ukraine as it considers invading and occupying the country.

Former Ukrainian MP Yevgeny Muraev is being considered as a possible candidate, according to a statement from the British Foreign Office, which indicates that it has information about Russian intelligence ties to many former Ukrainian politicians.

These politicians, according to the United Kingdom, include Sergiy Arbuzov, Ukraine’s first vice prime minister from 2012 to 2014 and interim prime minister in 2014; Andriy Klyuev, First Vice Prime Minister from 2010 to 2012, as well as Volodymyr Sivkovich, former Deputy Chairman of the National Defense and Security Council of Ukraine (NSDC), and Mykola Azarov, Prime Minister of Ukraine from 2010 to 2014.

Some of these politicians have contacts with Russian intelligence agents currently involved in planning an attack on Ukraine, the British ministry said in a statement.

“This information sheds light on the extent of Russian activities aimed at undermining Ukraine and provides insight into the mindset of the Kremlin,” British Foreign Secretary Liz Truss said in a statement.

“Russia needs to de-escalate, put an end to its campaigns of aggression and disinformation, and follow the path of diplomacy. As the UK and our partners have repeatedly stated, any Russian military intervention in Ukraine would be a huge strategic blunder with serious costs. Truss added.

The British government reiterates its “unconditional” support for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine within its internationally recognized borders, including Crimea.

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This information comes at a time of intense contacts between Russia and the United States over tensions caused by the deployment of Russian troops on the border with Ukraine.

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