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Remember Jackal Carlos? Third Venezuelan Trial Begins in France for 1974 Paris Attack – Current Events

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The new trial, scheduled for November 2019 by the Court of Cassation, will continue until Friday. The hearings will be aimed only at analyzing the term of punishment, since the defendant’s guilt has already been firmly established by the courts. The previous sentence was life imprisonment.

The 71-year-old defendant, who has been imprisoned in France since his arrest in Sudan in 1994, entered the court with a smile. “I’ve been on forced leave for 27 and a half years,” he told the president of the court when he was forced to show his identity card.

In March 2017, Jackal Carlos was sentenced to life imprisonment, the sentence upheld in court of appeal for throwing a grenade at the Publicis Pharmacy in Paris on Boulevard Saint-Germain in 1974. Two dead and 34 wounded. …

The Court of Cassation partially overturned the second verdict, which found the Venezuelan guilty of murder and attempted murder for “explosive force” and for transporting “an explosive device without a valid reason.”

This court, the main judicial authority in France, considered that the transport of the grenade was “a necessary preliminary operation for the commission of other crimes” and calculated that Carlos had been convicted twice for the same crime.

A defendant in the “anti-imperialist” armed struggle of the 1970s and 1980s, the Venezuelan was twice sentenced to life imprisonment: for three murders in 1975 in Paris and for four explosions in France in 1982 and 1983 (11 dead and 191 injured). …

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Scientists from the Instituto Dom Luiz and IPMA uncover the phenomenon that caused the global spread of the tsunami in Tonga.

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The atmospheric acoustic gravity wave caused by the massive explosion of the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai volcano in the South Pacific on January 15 was the source of a global tsunami. The conclusion was made by a team of researchers from the Dom Luis Institute, the Faculty of Natural Sciences of the University of Lisbon and the Portuguese Institute of the Sea and Atmosphere (IPMA).

Using a combination of sea level data, atmospheric and satellite images from various parts of the globe, to which they applied numerical and analytical models, the scientists demonstrated that “the tsunami was caused by a constantly moving source in which acoustic gravity waves were emitted. eruptions excite the ocean and transfer energy to it through resonance, ”says a study published in the journal Nature under the title “Global tsunami in Tonga attributed to fast moving atmospheric source”.

The coincidence between the tsunami and the time of arrival of these acoustic-gravity waves confirms, according to the researchers, the existence of a direct connection between these two phenomena. “The massive volcanic explosion created noticeable atmospheric waves and an exceptionally fast global tsunami,” comments lead author Rashid Omira, researcher at Instituto Dom Luiz and IPMA.

The geophysicist cites as an example the fact that the tsunami hit the coast of Portugal, on the opposite side of the planet (more than 17 thousand kilometers), “ten hours earlier than expected”, crossing the oceans and causing sea waves of amazing sizes. , has remote areas.

“This was the first time that a tsunami caused by a volcanic eruption was recorded on a global scale with modern and dense equipment around the world, which provided a unique opportunity to study the processes of interaction between air and water during its occurrence and propagation,” says Omira.

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Volcanic eruptions usually cause tsunamis but are now less likely to have transoceanic effects. In Portugal, according to IPMA information released at the time, “sea level changes” were observed in the Azores, Madeira and the mainland. In Ponta Delgada, the water level rose by 40 cm, in Peniche by 39 cm, and in Funchal by 20 cm.

“This tsunami spread across different oceans, including the Atlantic, while sea level fluctuations were observed at almost all mareographic stations operating on the Portuguese coast, fluctuations with an amplitude of less than half a meter,” IPMA then said.

The eruption of an underwater volcano a few kilometers from Tonga raised a cloud of ash and gases into the sky, reaching a height of 20 kilometers. Tsunami waves damaged New Zealand, Chile, Peru and the United States.

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The Ukrainian army accused the Russians of shelling the Snake Island with phosphorus bombs

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“At around 18:00, the Russian armed forces carried out two airstrikes with phosphorus bombs on Snake Island,” Ukrainian commander Valery Zaluzhny wrote on Telegram, accusing Moscow of “disrespecting its own statements.”

The day before, the Russian army announced that it had left the symbolic territory “as a sign of good will”, having “completed” the “set tasks”.

“The only thing this opponent is consistent about is his constant accuracy in attack,” added Zaluzhny.

The officer accompanied his message with video footage showing the plane flying over Zmeiny Island and dropping at least two bombs that hit the target, leaving clear white trails in the sky, a hallmark of phosphorus bombs.

Phosphorus weapons are incendiary weapons prohibited for use against civilians but not against military targets under the 1980 Geneva Convention.

Kyiv has repeatedly accused Moscow of using these weapons since the end of February, including against civilians, which the Russian army categorically rejects.

On Thursday, the Ukrainian army congratulated itself for forcing the Russians, “unable to resist” artillery, to leave Snake Island, located in the northwestern Black Sea.

On February 24, Russia launched a “special military operation” in Ukraine that was condemned by the international community as a whole.

Most Western countries responded by sending weapons to Ukraine and tightening economic and political sanctions against Moscow.

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A typical Ukrainian soup is a UNESCO heritage site: Russia’s outraged reaction

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Russia reacted with indignation at UNESCO’s inclusion of the typical Ukrainian “borscht” in the list of intangible cultural heritage under threat, a new “front” in the bilateral conflict.

Following the announcement by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Minister of Culture of Ukraine Oleksandr Tkatchenko commented on the Telegram social network that “Ukraine will win the Borscht war, just like this war,” referring to the armed conflict with Russia.

On the Russian side, Moscow diplomats almost immediately condemned the UNESCO decision, accusing the Ukrainians of appropriating the dish as a form of “modern nationalism.”

“It could be something in common, in which every city, every district, every owner of everyone cooks in his own way, but they [ucranianos] they didn’t want to compromise, and this is xenophobia, Nazism, extremism in all its manifestations,” Russian Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Maria Zakharova criticized.

“Hummus and rice for pilaf are recognized as national dishes in many countries,” Zakharova continued, “but “Ukrainization” concerns everything. What will happen next? Will pigs be recognized as a Ukrainian national product?” Zakharova joked on the Telegram social network.

borscht soup

Borsch, made from beets and meat, is a traditional soup usually served with plain or garlic bread, widely consumed in Ukraine as well as Russia.

Justifying the UNESCO decision, Pier Luigi Petrillo, a representative of the Ukrainian commission for evaluating the dossier, said that “it is not the very existence of this soup that is in danger, but the human and living heritage associated with“ borscht ”. … in imminent danger, given that the ability of the population to practice and transmit their intangible cultural heritage has been severely undermined by the armed conflict, in particular by the forced displacement of communities.”

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In mid-April, Ukraine filed for the soup to be added to the list of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Danger, arguing that the February 24 Russian invasion of the country and the months of bombing that followed had jeopardized the dish’s “viability”. tradition.

“The population is no longer able to cook or even grow the local vegetables needed to make borscht,” Petrillo commented.

“They can’t get together to practice making ‘borscht’, which jeopardizes social and cultural aspects. Thus, the transfer of this element is in jeopardy,” he continued.

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