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Combating Political Gender-Based Violence and Democracy

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Recently, episodes of gender-based political violence have attracted media attention. Although they present several options (different political parties, ideologies, spheres of action, etc.), the similarity of the cases lies in their goal: women in politics. Far from new, hostility to women’s participation in politics has been present since winning the vote for women, says Diva Nazario. [1]

In this sense, given this humiliating history of women’s participation in politics, added to the decline in the number of women elected to date. despite existing affirmative action [2] The fact is that for a long time episodes of political gender-based violence were not even noticed. However, it was disrespectful behavior, naturalized in this political environment opposite to women. As an illustration, it is worth recalling that only in 2016 a women’s toilet appeared in the Federal Senate for its parliamentarians.

When the eyes turned to the participation of women in politics, situations involving gender-based violence began to be noticed.

In fact, political gender-based violence can be described as behavior specifically directed against women, which is aimed at hindering, hindering or restricting their access to institutional political space, both in the context of the electoral process and during the period of their mandates. This type of gender-based violence is gaining increasing recognition throughout the world, especially in Latin America, and occurs in various ideological and political circles.

Some Latin American countries such as Bolivia, Argentina, Ecuador and Mexico have laws to combat gender-based political violence. [3]It should be noted that Bolivia was one of the first countries to enact legislation on this issue, since in 2012 a rule was approved that criminalizes persecution and political violence against women, as a strategy to combat this phenomenon. growing in the country (Law No. 243/2012).

Political gender-based violence is broad and includes physical, economic, psychological and symbolic violence, as well as complementary practices such as restricting freedom of expression, intimidating public participation and political action, in addition to disseminating information. v fake news… Thus, political violence bears similarities to hate speech in that it uses the mechanisms of power and oppression against people with certain identities as a way to validate threats against traditional hierarchies.

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In addition, it is seen as a possible way to prevent or reduce the participation of women as candidates and, subsequently, fulfill their mandates, exclude them from political debate, from disputes over positions and may even lead to refusal to participate. their mandates. Thus, even though violence can sometimes be directed against a specific woman, doing so has the effect of attracting and intimidating other women to participate in politics, as well as sending a social signal that they should not participate in a particular space. [4]

As highlighted by Daniel Gruneich and Yara Cordeiro, political gender-based violence is one of the reasons for under-representation in parliament and in the spheres of power and decision-making when women suffer from violence “Before they run, when they run, and also when they are chosen.” [5]

In Brazil, an important step has been taken with the adoption of Law 14.192/2021, which is the first time that the regulation of this subject has been regulated in the country. Although the regulation may, over time and more mature in this regard, undergo future changes and adjustments that may be required, the fact remains: this issue has attracted the attention of the legislator thanks to the changes made to the Electoral Code (Law No. 4737/1965); in the Law on Political Parties (Law No. 9 096/1995); and in the Election Law (Law No. 9,504 / 1997).

In this sense, Law No. 14.192 / 2021 introduced the concept of political violence against women as “Any action, behavior or omission with the aim of preventing, infringing or limiting the political rights of women” (Article 3). The norm also provides that they constitute acts of political violence against women. “Any difference, exclusion or limitation in the recognition, enjoyment or exercise of one’s fundamental political rights and freedoms based on gender”, determining that the competent authorities give priority “The immediate implementation of the violated right, with particular attention to the testimony of the victim and evidence.”

The above-mentioned regulation is one of the purposes of punishing actions that worsen the position of women in politics, that encourage discrimination on the basis of gender, as well as on the basis of race and ethnicity. The introduction of Article 326-B into the Electoral Code qualifies it as an electoral crime. “accept, embarrass, humiliate, harass or threaten by any means a candidate for an elective office or an electoral mandate holder, using disrespect or discrimination for a woman’s status or color, race or ethnicity in order to prevent or hinder your election campaign or the fulfillment of your term of office, “ imposing punishment in the form of imprisonment from one to four years and a fine, in addition to increasing the possibility of increasing the sentence (pregnant woman, over 60 years old or disabled).

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As already noted, the changes introduced to Law 14.192 / 2021 expand the tools to combat gender-based violence. and political and selective discrimination against women are always associated with the exercise of political rights (not only during the election campaign), which makes it a crime to spread false news with inaccurate content about political parties and candidates.

We believe that with the creation of the norm, it will be possible to look for new models for solving the problem, which allows politicians to focus on the problem, while avoiding the most serious cases of violence. Gender policy, still proven. in the country, without appropriate punishment.

A debate on this topic, promoted in 2020 by the Chamber of Deputies, presented UN Women data on the issue: “82% of women in the political sphere have already experienced psychological violence; 45% were threatened; 25% were physically abused in parliamentary space; 20% of women – sexual harassment; and 40% of women said violence violated their legislative agenda ” [6]

Respect for women’s participation in the power space is inextricably linked to the regular manifestation of citizenship, democracy and the outlook of society as a whole, which is composed of men and women, who should be treated equally. Episodes of gender-based violence can no longer be tolerated in politics.

Indeed, the facts that exclude women from public places and from power constitute a violation of their political rights. That is, it is a violation of a fundamental right protected both by the Federal Constitution and by international treaties signed by Brazil. [7]… Consequently, it is a challenge to national and international obligations that directly affect democracy itself.

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Of the various episodes of gender-based political violence, confirmed across the country, in a wide variety of spheres, ideologies, parties or political positions, MP Mariel Franco, who was elected to the position of adviser in Rio de Janeiro and killed in her execution. mandate for political reasons, as indicated in the investigation. Recently, MP Damiris Rinarli, councilor for the municipality of Conceleiro Lafayette (MG), said she had received death threats and persecution in connection with her mandate. The young councilor is the only woman among the representatives of the Lafayette city council who is very active in the protection of political banners related specifically to the fight against domestic violence and the killing of women, as well as to the protection of the LGBTQIA + community, the anti-racist struggle and the preservation and realization of human rights.

Thus, as can be seen, greater participation of women in the sphere of power and the promotion of gender equality in this political and electoral environment are important elements for mitigating violence against women. Moreover, the recent ruling on political gender-based violence is in line with an important tool in encouraging the creation of a new culture in which discrimination, hostility, and other derogatory and violent attitudes towards women in politics are no longer accepted. Behavior classification provides punishment for actions that restrict women from performing their public functions. Thus, fostering collective efforts to find tools to prevent gender-based political violence implies an obvious strengthening of democracy itself with a more just and egalitarian society, which leads to undeniable benefits for society as a whole.

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Pabllo Vittar appears live and announces the vote for the politician: “He helped my family.”

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Pabllo Vittar appears live and announces the vote for the politician: "He helped my family."

Pabllo Vittar appears at a political event for Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva’s campaign and announces what his vote will be in the next presidential election.

Monday evening (26th) Pablo Vittar surprised his followers by appearing on superlive Brazil Hopewhich took place in Sao Paulo. The event was the last Luis Inacio Lula da Silvacandidate for the presidency of the republic.

On stage, the most popular drag queen in the world decided to say a few words before the performance Luquinhaswho does he work with come back to stay. Directly, the artist ordered to vote for the politician and recalled how important the government was in her life.

“I wanted to tell you how important it is to appreciate culture and education in our country. Mr. President, if you are listening to me, know that I love you very much and it is thanks to you that I have become one of the greatest artists in the country.”began Pablo Vittar.

“Bolsa Familia helped me a lot. [família]when we needed it the most and I will never forget it. I will vote like never before, with the belief that I must renew the history of this country and that we can live better years. Not only for artists, but also for maids, cooks, porters and people who really need it.”— added the singer.

CRITICIZED

During your day this Friday (23), Sonya Abram almost “became a jaguar” live on RedeTV! blow up Bruno Luperiminus Benedito Ruy Barbosaresponsible for the authorship of the remake wetland to Globo.

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“For a change, it did not live up to expectations and, for a change, did not correspond to the texts that we had access to, that we knew about. That did not happen. Again, that didn’t happen”– said the host.

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Politics

Woman in political exercise as a RIG professional

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Women in institutional and government response

Women working in political, business and public environments are perceived as professionals in institutional and government relations (RIG), or lobby/advocacymore and more accepted and recognized.

The professional woman in RIG stands out for her knowledge of the legislative process and, above all, her ability to argue and defend positions, as well as to build narratives that convince political actors to defend certain projects, influence and set agendas for committee meetings and plenary sessions. meetings in the Legislative Chambers.

Thus, the power of the RelGovers women, or women in RIG, is not small. This, too, is deserving of contempt and restraint, which often comes from practices that threaten their body, voice, and perspective because they are women.

Historical aspects and how we are now

It is known that the construction of female and male identities and the formation of male superiority and dominance were determined by the biological and historically constructed fate of generations. The woman will have to procreate and take care of the family structure, while the man will be responsible for material diligence about livelihood and external contacts with the surrounding society.

In this context, the advancement of women in the socio-economic and political environment was perceived as opposing male domination, which consequently led to the development of forms of violence against women and the understanding of such violence.

However, there is a concern that increases with each generation and is accompanied by new ways of perceiving women in society and their social functions. The problems of the political rise of minority groups and insecure access to fundamental rights were overcome by creating state structures and laws that allowed social and political development based on access to rights. Two important political and legal advances have been made in advancing the figure and body of women beyond niches: access to specific public rights and policies and their economic empowerment.

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At present, the premises of the Legislative Chambers and state bodies are occupied by more and more women, who differ from men in figures, as a rule, white and middle-aged. However, the data also show that access to jobs, especially leadership positions, is dominated by men.

Understanding the problems associated with the increasing role of women in public and political life is largely related to understanding the forms of violence against women that are committed daily in these conditions. After all, it is through violence that we see resistance to the empowerment and social, economic and political ascent of women in society. When women occupy predominantly male positions, such as the legislative chamber, the judiciary, and the executive, the complexity of apparently patriarchal structures is called into question.

Violence Against Women RelGovers

How do we women of RelGovers feel and be victims of violence at different times in a professional context? Violence is felt, for example, when a woman is suddenly interrupted by a man in a meeting. This phenomenon is now known as interrupt and formally considered psychological abuse.

There are also situations in which a woman, realizing her expertise and positions, explains something important from a technical point of view, and then watches how a person internalizes his explanation and idea. This phenomenon is also recognized as psychological violence, the so-called. bropriation.

When more attention is paid to male figures, which happens when formal positions are declared in masculine rather than feminine, there is symbolic abuse due to the misuse of the masculine term when a woman holds office. and function.

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Women in politics in numbers

Studies such as the Inter-Parliamentary Union and the World Economic Forum, an organization that promotes reflection on the parliamentary context of several countries, condemn this Brazil ranks 142nd in ranging with 192 countries, in terms of women’s participation in politics. Also, according to the World Economic Forum, Brazil ranked 93rd out of 156 countries in 2021 for the presence of women in formal political power.

The decline in the presence of women in politics is so strong on a global scale that it deserves a separate term to explain this phenomenon. secessiontranslates as feminine recession. Studies show that under the current scenario, it will take 135.6 years to achieve full equality between women and men..

In addition, the IBGE gender indicators condemn various aspects of inequality. Women have the best educational records, have the best school attendance rates, and make up the majority of the population with tertiary education in Brazil. However, only 39.1% of leadership positions are held by women and Men’s earnings are on average 20.5% higher than women’s.

women in congress

It is important to note that in the Legislature from 2018 to 2022 in the Chamber of Deputies there are 77 deputies out of a total of 513. On the other hand, in the Federal Senate there are 16 senators out of a total of 81.

In the RIG environment, men make up the majority in career and leadership positions, making up 60% of coordinators and 70% of directors. Only assistant and analyst positions are dominated by women, accounting for 60% and 58% of positions, respectively.

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look into the future

The statistics give us a difficult scenario for women as they show the persistence of inequalities between women and men. Michelle Bachelet, United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, offers us the continuity of efforts and the importance of women occupying formal spaces of power: “When a woman enters politics, a woman changes. When many women enter politics, politics changes.”

Thus, advocacy before parliaments, which comes with the proposition of guidelines and legislative proposals and with the construction of qualified information – reports, policy analyzes and technical notes, demonstrates how the implementation of institutional and governmental relations expands the debate about public life. politics and law, and the promotion of different points of view and interests that deserve to be represented.

A gradual change in scenario with more women in RIG careers, in addition to advances in research and legislation to protect women and empower them socioeconomically, presents a promising picture. Overcoming the structures of patriarchal domination and inequality between women and men is slow, but gradually, women began to be perceived, heard and respected. This is what we are looking for more and more.

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Politics

At Roda Viva, Enrique Meirelles answers questions about the future in politics

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At Roda Viva, Enrique Meirelles answers questions about the future in politics

Interview with Roda Viva this Monday (26) Enrique Meirelles, former President of the Central Bank in the two governments of former President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT).

Former finance minister under Michel Temer and most recently financial secretary to former governor Joao Doria, he was also international president of BankBoston between 1996 and 1999 and candidate for President of the Republic in the 2018 elections for the Brazilian Democratic Movement (MDB). .

As finance minister, he approved labor reform and PEC 95, known as PEC do Seto dos Gastos Publicos. In this final stretch of the election campaign, he declared his support for the PT. He does not rule out talks about participating in a possible Lula government, but has already said that the budget ceiling must be maintained and respected.

In the program, he answers whether he will try to enter political life again or not. In 2018, he was MDB’s presidential candidate. He finished in seventh place with 1.2% of the valid votes.

“I am not a career politician, I applied in 2002 and was elected, and then went to the Central Bank, so I did not make a political career. After running for president in 2018, I thought I should make a proposal to the country. I did it and I think I did well. But I am not a professional politician. I was invited to be a candidate for senators, I analyzed it well and came to the conclusion that this is not what I want. I understand that this is not the time to start [a ser político]” replies.

Alex Ribeiro, Special Reporter for Valor Econômico, Alvaro Gribel, Columnist for O Globo, Economic Columnist for TV Gazeta Denise Campos de Toledo, Special Reporter for Folha de S. Paulo Julio Wiziack, and Tais Carranza, Reporter for BBC News, Brazil.

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See the full program:

With the presentation of Vera Magalhaes, the program will be broadcast live at 22:00 on the Kultura TV channel. broadcaster websitechannel do YouTube, Dailymotionand on social networks Twitter e facebook.

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