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Semi-presidency returns to Brazilian political debate

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Semi-presidency returns to Brazilian political debate

Mayor Arthur Lira raises the question of the possibility of introducing the system in 2026.

A system of government in which the president is elected by popular vote, but shares executive power with parliament, represented by the prime minister, in addition to holding the office of head of state. In short, it is the concept of semi-presidency, a topic that has returned to Brazilian political debate after House President Arthur Lear (PP-AL) confirmed that the House of Representatives is discussing the possibility of applying the model in 2026.

Lira said on her social media earlier this week that changing the current presidential system to a semi-presidential one could reduce political instability in Brazil. He reiterated that this topic had already been discussed in the Chamber at another time and that it could return to the agenda. In Congress, opposition lawmakers oppose the bill because they believe it was proposed to reduce Lula’s power if elected in 2022, as the PT is in the forefront of the vote.

In practice, under a semi-presidency, the president of the republic, deputies and senators will continue to be elected by popular vote, with the difference that the executive will also be led by a prime minister, indirectly elected by parliament.

Typically, in semi-presidential countries such as Portugal and France, the president holds the office of head of state, deals with foreign policy and the military, but shares executive power with the prime minister, who is more in charge of internal state affairs.
In contrast to pure parliamentarism, in which the president plays only the role of the head of state, and the government only plays the role of the prime minister.

In this system, the president of the republic has more powers than the practically symbolic role played by parliamentarism. As a rule, the president can, for example, dissolve parliament, accordingly dissolve the prime minister’s government and call new elections. In this sense, although the powers of the prime minister to govern the government, for example, to be responsible for the selection of government ministers, are great, the president of the republic has the right to remove him.

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The argument of supporters of a semi-presidential system of government or even parliamentarism is that they are less sensitive to political crises, which was confirmed by the Chairman of the Chamber, speaking on this issue. This opinion is confirmed by the lawyer and specialist in constitutional law Akasiu Miranda.

“Under a semi-presidential system of government, regardless of the political crisis, when the government is removed, the president remains, that is, you keep an elected figure at the head of the state, but you change managers. This gives the system more confidence and stability, ”said Miranda.

But, he said, the proposal will only be viable if it takes more time to discuss it. “To discuss this after 2026, I think it is reasonable, because otherwise the project would be stillborn,” the lawyer said.

political education

According to the former Minister of Education and Professor of Philosophy at the University of São Paulo (USP) Renato Janin, changing the state system would mean the need for political re-education of the population, and this situation will take time.

“The Brazilian voter tends to pay much more attention to electing executive candidates than legislative candidates, so this makes change in Brazil very questionable,” he said.
“Now the Brazilian political class is inclined to think that political problems are technically solved. You have political problems that are solved primarily by the political conscience of the people, ”Janin said.

Malko Camargo, professor of political science at the Pontifical Catholic University (PUC Minas) and director of the Institute for Policy and Strategy, also advocates the need for deep political reform before thinking about changing the system.

“The Brazilian parliament is a source of instability due to the number of parties. Therefore, I believe that before thinking about changing the system of government, it is important to change the number of parties represented in parliament so that we have a more predictable democracy, less prone to crises, ”muses Camargo.

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The ways

There are two possible ways to change the current system of government in the country. One of them is a plebiscite, as was the case in 1963 and 1993, when the population decided by voting whether to change or not.

Another alternative is to amend the constitution, which must be approved by the National Congress in 3/5 of the plenary session in both the Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate, that is, 308 votes among deputies and 49 among senators.

In the understanding of the constitutionalist Akasiu Miranda, Congress would have the opportunity to put the issue to a general vote, but a proposal for an amendment to the Constitution (PEC) would be enough to authorize a new model.

“We will not change the state regime as a whole, therefore, in my understanding, PECs are enough. If the proposed change, for example, concerned pure parliamentarism, in which the elected president would lose all governmental and administrative functions, that is, a large gap in the system, then I think the plebiscite would be more necessary, ”the lawyer says. …

uncertainties

In the case of PECs, PUC political science professor Minas Malko Camargo doubts the proposal will be approved by the National Congress.

“It is important to say that this model does not have a minimum number of signatures to be processed in the Chamber, and that there is no consensus in the legislature. Knowing this, a proposal was put forward for validity until 2026, so that there would be more time for the debate to mature, ”said Malko Camargo.

old debate

This is not the first time the Brazilian political model has been discussed. For example, PSDB, which ruled Brazil from 1995 to 2002 during the reign of Fernando Henrique Cardoso, was founded, among other things, to protect the parliamentary system.

Debate usually occurs in Brazil at times of political crisis when the federal government loses its ability to speak to Congress, especially when support for the impeachment of the president grows.

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Between 1961 and 1963, with the inauguration of João Goulart as President of the Republic, succeeding Gianiu Cuadros, who had resigned, it was agreed with the opposition and the military that Brazil would be governed by a parliamentary system with three prime ministers: Tancredo Neves, Brocado da Rocha and Hermes Lima. This was the only period in the entire history of the Brazilian Republic when the country was governed according to this model. In 1963, in a referendum, the population voted for a return to the presidential system, returning Django to government functions.

Brazilians returned to the polls in 1993 to choose a system of government in a plebiscite provided for in the 1988 constitution. Options include a parliamentary monarchy, a parliamentary republic, or a presidential power. Voters chose the latter option, gaining over 80%, and retained the current political system.

Even the political scientist and PUC Minas professor, Malko Camargos, has a profile of the Brazilian electorate who is not inclined to sympathize with any other system other than the presidential one.

“The people of Brazil are opposed to the political class and are afraid of some of the decisions they make. When the population realizes that with a semi-presidency the power of parliamentarians increases and that important decisions concerning their lives are passed into the hands of parliament, the population even begins to fear this, ”he assesses.

USP philosophy professor Renato Janine emphasizes that presidential power is ingrained in the political culture of the Brazilian electorate and could hardly have changed without some basic work.

“It will be a culture change, and you will not change culture with a snap of your fingers. Brazilian society has rejected this twice already and would certainly reject the third if it is put to the vote now or in 2026, as they propose, ”the professor said.

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The dollar continues to reflect the political scenario

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The dollar continues to reflect the political scenario

Yesterday, financial agents evaluated the opposite decision of the Federal Supreme Court (STF) regarding the so-called secret budget. In addition, a decision was made by STF Minister Gilmar Méndez to issue an injunction that would exclude the Bolsa Família from the spending cap rule, with investors trying to understand how this measure would affect the processing of the transitional PEC in the Chamber of Deputies. Oh this PEC!!!!

Since he is an exchange investor, any reading that the budget will be exceeded or become more flexible will negatively affect the exchange market, whether through the PEC or in any other way. We will continue with volatility today.

Looking beyond, the US Central Bank (Fed), although slowing down the pace of monetary tightening at its December meeting, issued a tougher-than-expected statement warning that its fight against inflation was not yet over, raising fears that rising US interest rates will push the world’s largest economy into recession.

The currency market continues to react to political news. The voting on the PEC is saved for today. It is expected that it will indeed be reviewed to open the way tomorrow for discussions on the 2023 budget.

Yesterday, the spot price closed the selling day at R$5.3103.

For today on the calendar we will have an index of consumer confidence in the eurozone. Good luck and good luck in business!!

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Andrés Sánchez consults with the Ministry of Sports, but refuses a political post.

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The former president of the Corinthians dreams of working for the CBF as a national team coordinator. He was consulted shortly after Lula’s election.

Former Corinthians president Andrés Sánchez was advised to take a position in the Ministry of Sports under the administration of Lula (PT). However, he ruled out a return to politics. dreams of taking over the coordination of CBF selectionHow do you know PURPOSE.

No formal invitation was made to the former Corinthian representative, only a consultation on a portfolio opportunity with the new federal government, which will be sworn in on January 1, 2023.

Andrés was the Federal MP for São Paulo from 2015 to 2019. At that time he was elected by the Workers’ Party. However, the football manager begs to stay in the sport, ruling out the possibility of getting involved in politics again.

Andrés Sanchez’s desire is to fill the position of CBF tackle coordinator, which should become vacant after the 2022 World Cup. Juninho Paulista fulfills this function in Brazil’s top football institution.

The former president of Corinthians was in Qatar to follow the World Cup along with other figures in Brazilian football. During his time in the country, he strengthened his ties with the top leadership of the CBF.

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The EU has reached a political agreement on limiting gas prices – 19.12.2022

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Germany sentenced Russian to life imprisonment for political murder by order of Moscow - 12/15/2021
BRUSSELS, DECEMBER 19 (ANSA). European Union countries reached a political agreement on Monday (19) to impose a natural gas price ceiling of 180 euros per megawatt hour (MWh). The main sources of income for Russia and the minimization of the use of energy as a weapon by the regime of Vladimir Putin.

The agreement was approved by a supermajority at a ministerial meeting of member states in Brussels, Belgium, after months of discussions about the best way to contain the rise in natural gas prices in the bloc caused by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. .

The value set by the countries is well below the proposal made by the European Commission, the EU’s executive body, in November: 275 EUR/MWh. However, the countries leading the cap campaign were in favor of an even lower limit, around 100 EUR/MWh.

Germany, always wary of price controls, voted in favor of 180 euros, while Austria and the Netherlands, also skeptical of the cap, abstained. Hungary, the most pro-Russian country in the EU, voted against.

The instrument will enter into force on 15 February, but only if natural gas prices on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange exceed 180 euros/MWh for three consecutive days. In addition, the difference compared to a number of global benchmarks should be more than 35 euros.

Italy, the EU’s biggest supporter of the ceiling, has claimed responsibility for the measure. “This is a victory for Italy, which believed and worked for us to reach this agreement,” Environment and Energy Minister Gilberto Picetto tweeted.

“This is a victory for Italian and European citizens who demand energy security,” he added.

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Currently, the gas price in Amsterdam is around 110 EUR/MWh, which is already a reflection of the agreement in Brussels – in August the figure even broke the barrier of 340 EUR/MWh.

However, Russia has already threatened to stop exports to countries that adhere to the ceiling. (ANSA).

See more news, photos and videos at www.ansabrasil.com.br.

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