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Luis Gama, lawyer, poet and politician – 06/24/2021 – Silvio Almeida



Luis Gama, lawyer, poet and politician - 06/24/2021 - Silvio Almeida

June 21 last year marked the 191th anniversary of the birth of Luis Gama, the greatest lawyer in Brazilian history. Louis Gama he was born on June 21, 1830 in the city of Salvador, state of Bahia.

According to a constant message in a letter to Lucio de Mendonce, his mother was a free African woman named Louise Mahin, who was actively involved in the “slave uprisings”. In the same letter, Luis Gama reports that at the age of ten he was sold by his own father to a merchant and smuggler named Antonio Pereira Cardoso.

At the age of 17, he learned to read with a law student, Antonio Rodrigues do Prado, who at the time was living in the house of the merchant who enslaved him. The next year he escapes captivity, having received, in his own words, “skillfully and secretly” “irrefutable proof of his freedom.”

In Sao Paulo, he became assistant adviser to Furtado de Mendonça, chief of police and professor at the Largo School of Law in San Francisco. With adviser Furtado, Luis Gama began in the world of law. His activities as a journalist and romantic poet are notable. In 1859 he published his book of poetry, Primeiras Trovas Burlescas, and in 1864 he founded Diabo Coxo, the first illustrated newspaper in São Paulo.

During this period, Luis Gama devoted himself to the legal defense of the slaves who sought him in order to gain recognition of their freedom, an activity that mobilized him until his death in 1882.

He was named a “tenured lawyer” after being granted judicial authorization to practice as a lawyer, as he was unable to obtain a law degree due to the circumstances of his life.

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It was in this state that he became a great and respected jurist, leading legal cases that culminated in the liberation of hundreds of enslaved people. For Professor Luis Felipe de Alencastro, Luis Gama can also be considered a hero of the African diaspora, as his struggle was fought not only against Brazilian slavery, but also against human trafficking.

In his political actions, he linked the abolitionist struggle with a fierce critical defense of republicanism. “Critical” because he knew that a change in government would not be enough to ensure equality or end racism. The establishment of an oligarchy in the Old Republic will confirm Luis Gama’s fears.

Luis Gama embodied the “humanist” intellectual in the Renaissance sense of the word, an intellectual who has a deep domain in various fields of knowledge, but who remains associated with the most pressing issues of his time.

In recent years, the figure of Luis Gama has become more and more famous. In 2015, on the initiative of Instituto Luiz Gama, the Federal Council of the Brazilian Bar Association and the Faculty of Law of the Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Luis Gama was recognized as a lawyer and officially registered with the OAB.

In 2017, the USP School of Law named one of its classrooms after Luis Gama, the first time someone who was not a professor at the school was honored. In 2018, a bill by federal deputy Orlando Silva (PC do B-SP) was approved, which declared Luis Gama the patron of the abolition of the death penalty and determined the inclusion of his name in the Book of Heroes of the Motherland.

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And on June 29, the University Council of the University of São Paulo, following a petition from the School of Communications and Arts, will vote to award the title of Doctor honoris causa to Luis Gama.

Academic interest in his life and work is also growing. In recent years, following research such as that of Professor Ligi Ferreira Fonseca, Luis Gama has been recognized as an intellectual, author of work pertaining to understanding Brazil and American slavery.

May the life, scriptures and power of Luis Gama guide and inspire hope in these dark times.

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Facebook expands transparency measures for social ads in elections



Meta, the company in charge of managing Facebook, Instagram and WhatsApp, announced this Thursday, March 19, the expansion of the policy of transparency in advertisements on social issues in Brazil, which is another measure of the platform for the 2022 elections in Brazil.

Profiles and pages wishing to advertise in the areas of civil and social rights, crime, weapons, economics, education, environmental policy, health care, political values ​​and governance, immigration, security and foreign policy will need to go through an authorization process. and the posts will have a tag indicating who is paying for those ads. The measures will take effect in June.

On a global scale, this tool was already used in the elections in the Philippines, which took place in May this year. Photo: Reuters.

Labels have been used for political or election advertising since 2018 and became mandatory in 2020. Stadaoresource used by federal deputies e preliminary presidential candidates.

Any user can access the information in the ad library where the posts are stored. In this content, you can access data about the age group, gender and location of the audience.

“Greater transparency leads to more authentic interactions and more authentic advertising,” said Meta Strategic Response program manager Debs Delbart. “We understand that the more transparency on the platform, the more people will responsibly use our services, because the data will be available for everyone to review.”

When the measure goes into effect, any social, political, and election ads on Facebook and Instagram that don’t have any of the labels can be removed and stored in the ad library for seven years.

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According to Debs Delbart, the list of social categories has not yet been disclosed to the Higher Electoral Court (TSE), and adds that the topics on the list may be adjusted as the election year progresses.

The platform will be assisted by artificial intelligence, a team from Brazil and an international group that regulates this content. Users can also file complaints. At the global level, Delbart reports, this tool has already been used in the Philippine elections, which were held in May this year in Mexico and Chile.

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Politics, according to thinker Arduini



Politics, according to thinker Arduini

“(…) Politics ennobles and expresses the feeling of citizenship.” (Father Juvenal Arduini, sociologist and professor)

A wonderful being, endowed with extraordinary wisdom, he knew how to put the talents of the spirit at the service of the world, public affairs, rejected in the division of earthly goods, bestowed by nature or produced by human labor. His name was Juvenal Arduini. Priest, writer, sociologist, professor, incendiary tribune. I enjoyed the privilege of a long coexistence, very fruitful for me in terms of benefits, with this wonderful master. Once, while paying my respects to him, I told him that I consider him the Brazilian father of Lebre. Refresh the concept. Today I am fully convinced – looking at the parts of his apostolic work and the writings that came out from his brilliant pen, and the teachings conveyed in his civilly impartial speech – that it is quite reasonable to also proclaim that the aforementioned Father Lebret, the famous thinker, was the French Juvenal Arduino.

Remembering a character who occupied such an important place in intellectual life, endowed with enviable humanistic and spiritual gifts, a very dear friend, my comrade, I allow myself to replace, with noticeable benefit for the reader, during these periods of tense articulation aimed at holding presidential elections, which have a great meaning for all of us, my commentary in words taken from the vast and valuable work left by the master. These are energetic, timely, and relevant thoughts, as we shall see later.

Let’s. Here is what Juvenal said: “During elections (…) it is appropriate to think about politics. The word “politics” comes from the Greek “poleteia”. “Polis” means a city, a locality. And “polites” is a citizen. It turns out that initially politics ennobles and expresses a sense of citizenship.

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Politics is a highly social phenomenon and contributes to the development of society as a whole. Politics means unification, coexistence and union. Politics exists to bring people together, to integrate groups and nations to respond to social challenges. True politics encourages essential socialization and eliminates bitter feuds between people, organizations and parties.

Politics is organically connected with the people. He is called to serve the people, and not to subordinate them to petty interests. The Brazilian constitution was bold and clear when it came to the relationship between the government and the people. Article 1, paragraph 1, of the Constitution proclaims: “All power proceeds from the people, who exercise it through elected representatives or directly in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.” There is a lapidary constitutional declaration that elevates the modern nation. Power comes from the people. And this is also carried out by the people through voters or directly. Power is in the people, it remains in the people. The people can give functions to politicians, but do not transfer power to them. Strictly speaking, power belongs to the people, not to the rulers. There are politicians who act as if they hold the power that belongs to the people. This is the usurpation of the people’s power.

There are many types of policies. Humanized, social, ethical and purposeful policy towards the population. Prostituted, corrupt and perverted politics. Authoritarian, tyrannical politics and submissive, slave politics. There is a serious policy that meets the needs of the population, and a corrupt policy that appropriates the resources that belong to the poor. (…) “Political reality itself is a human, social, cultural and historical value. A sound policy is necessary for society. This is not about canceling the policy, but about cleaning it up. It is necessary to save the political potential of the people. There is an urgent need to establish (…) a policy of justice, not poverty. (…) The politics of ethics (…) The politics of life, not death. Politics must be devoted to the cry of suffering humanity and historical responsibility.”

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Libyan Prime Minister Claims ‘Political Suicide by Coup’ – Middle East Monitor



Libyan Prime Minister Claims 'Political Suicide by Coup' - Middle East Monitor

Abdel Hamid Dbeibeh, prime minister of Libya’s recognized government, announced what he called “the political suicide of the coup project.”

Dbeibe’s comments follow clashes in the capital, Tripoli, between government of national unity troops and paramilitaries linked to the fictitious Tobruk parliament, which has elected Fathi Bashaga as its new prime minister.

A few hours earlier, Bashaga had arrived in the city to take office.

Dbeibe refused to hand over power, except for a government elected under the guidelines of the Libyan Political Dialogue Forum, affirming: “Without elections, there is no future.”

The United Nations (UN) is facilitating negotiations in Cairo to reach consensus on a constitutional basis for holding “as soon as possible” legislative and executive elections in the North African nation.

Dbeibeh agreed to open a security corridor for Bashagi to leave the capital “for the simple reason that one drop of Libyan blood is more important than any greed or authority.”

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“The government continues to fulfill its responsibilities as the only guarantee for future elections in Libya,” the prime minister repeated. “The government will remain that way until the election.”

At the time, Dbeibeh assured foreign diplomats that the security situation in Tripoli was “stable” and that work could continue as usual.

On Tuesday evening (17), Bashaga called a press conference in the eastern city of Sirte, where he said he had left the capital to prevent casualties.

“We don’t move forces or use weapons; we were going to arrive alone without an escort,” Bashaga said. “We don’t want bloodshed; it is impossible for me to take power through massacre. We will keep on fighting until we reach our goal; however peacefully.

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Bashaga claimed to have driven into Tripoli in two civilian vehicles. The stalemate has persisted since March, when the congress in Tobruk chose him to remove Dbeibeh.

“I have the right, as prime minister, elected by the legislature, to go to the capital,” he repeated. “The government will begin its work tomorrow, headquartered in Sirte, and we will go to Tripoli if we are sure that our arrival will not shed a single drop of blood.”

On Twitter, Bashaga accused the government of national unity of “using force” to prevent a transfer of power. “Although we entered the capital without the use of violence or force of arms, welcomed by the people of Tripoli, we were surprised by the dangerous military escalation of groups associated with the government, whose mandate has expired.”

The Deputy Prime Minister added: “Threatening the security of civilians is a crime under the law, and we cannot contribute to the infringement of the security of the capital and its inhabitants.”

This was reported to the agency by a source in the 444th brigade of the Libyan army. Anadolu that their commander accompanied Bashaga, leading him out of the city. “The position of the brigade regarding the outbreak of conflict is clear: we reject any bloodshed or instability in the country.”

Libya is contested by two separate governments and there are fears of a return to civil war.

The UN hopes that a general election will help end the conflict that has plagued the country since 2011, when long-lived dictator Muammar Gaddafi was ousted by popular uprising and outside interference.

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