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Learn the stories of political prisoners interned in shelters.

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Learn the stories of political prisoners interned in shelters.

Unpublished review UOL uncovered 24 cases of internment of political prisoners by the military dictatorship in psychiatric institutions. There are 21 men and three women in nine federation units. The number may be greater than the one indicated in the report.

Find out more about the history of some of these political prisoners below. ABOUT UOL it only publishes the full names of those who have already died, or, in the case of the living, with the permission of the individual or family. The rest of the cases are indicated with initials only.

Of the 24 cases, at least 22 were tortured in regular prisons prior to internment. This is the case of Paulo Benhimola, who began to hear voices similar to ” [a voz de] one of those agents who interrogated me “and who said that” it is in the hands of the devil again. “SR lost his memory after ten days of electric shock.

In the institutions where they were interned, some political prisoners continued to be ill-treated. In Pernambuco, JS spent “two years with speech and movement difficulties” due to high doses of psychiatric drugs. In Rio, Solange Gomez was treated with electroshock and seizure therapy (seizure induction).

In response to an inquiry, the Department of Defense stated that “facts relating to the period from 1964 to 1973 are subject to the Amnesty Act.”

Aparecido Galdino Jacinto, Sao Paulo

Aparecidao spent seven years at the Franco da Rocha orphanage.

Image: Reproduction

An illiterate farmer, Aparecidao, as he was called, was a religious leader in Rubinea, deep in São Paulo. In 1970, he and his followers opposed the flooding of their lands for the construction of the Ilha Solteira hydroelectric power plant – the work of the dictatorship. They were arrested for resisting police violence at the temple where they were gathering.

According to military justice, Aparecidao had “delusional ideas of a mystical nature.” Under the National Security Act, he was sentenced to two years in the Franco da Rocha asylum. As a result, he stayed for seven years.

He was released after a new forensic scientist declared that he could not be considered insane because of his belief: “The idea of ​​a man in [ser] healer, preach peace, goodness, say that his power was a gift lent to him by God? If this were so, justice would be full of criminal acts against the Pope, cardinals, bishops, priests, pastors, mediums and all others who call on the name of the Lord. “

MR, Rio de Janeiro

When a political prisoner walked in front of Sir’s cell at the Ilha das Flores prison in Rio de Janeiro, he heard the call: “I can’t take this anymore.” He asked them to report his situation abroad because the military wanted him to report facts he did not know. He was accused of organizing the Brazilian Revolutionary Communist Party.

One of the activists, who lived with the SR on Ilha das Flores, included his case in the text of the accusation: “A prisoner at the age of 20 spent 20 days in solitary confinement, beat him daily for a month; memory loss after 10 days of electric shock, stick. -de-arara. He was interned in a court shelter because of his mental state. “

Torture and Madness - Shelter Political Prison Map - Arte / UOL - Arte / UOL

Reception took place from 1964 to the mid-1970s.

Image: Art / UOL

Nilo Sergio Menezes de Macedo, Rio de Janeiro

After a period of imprisonment in Minas Gerais, Macedo was sentenced to four years of imprisonment at the Judicial Hospital. Heitor Carrillo in Rio. “They claimed that I had mental problems. I was crazy, not at all, says Macedo.

“The orphanage was a hell of a place, a very tough environment. [Quem estava lá eram] people with serious mental health problems who have committed common crimes such as murder. I got an electric shock, I had to take very strong drugs. I stayed there for about seven months. Then I thought: if I stay here, my life will be in jeopardy. I hate being here. Then I tried to escape and I was caught. “

After attempting to escape, Macedo was taken out of the orphanage and sent back to a regular prison on the island of Ilha Grande. “This is what saved me.”

Roberto Joao Motta, Santa Catarina

Mott’s lawyer was arrested in Santa Catarina on charges of belonging to the Brazilian Communist Party. In a letter to the Archdiocese of São Paulo, his wife condemned “the torture to which her husband was subjected by the army and the police. Unable to bear the suffering any longer, he tried to commit suicide three times. Then he was sent to prison. Judicial asylum.”

Finally, the military court authorized his transfer to a private psychiatric clinic, the costs of which were paid by the family, but did not cancel his arrest – the family also had to pay the costs of the police officers who guarded him.

JS, Pernambuco

Torture Madness - Truth Commission House Helder Kamara - Truth Commission House Helder Kamara

Political prisoner reported ill-treatment during psychiatric treatment

Image: Truth Commission House Helder Kamara

ALN (Aliança Libertadora Nacional) member JS was arrested, tortured and sent to various institutions for psychiatric treatment under police escort.

In documents sent to the Pernambuco Remembrance and Truth Commission, he said that he had received very high doses of psychiatric drugs, “almost died of an overdose”, and in another situation – “two years with difficulties in speech and mobility.”

Paulo Roberto das Neves Benjimol, Rio de Janeiro

The journalist Benchimol was imprisoned in Ilha das Flores on charges of belonging to MR-8 (Revolutionary Movement of October 8).

Exhausted, he began to hear voices “saying that I am back in the hands of the devil.” “The voice is similar to the voice of one of those agents who interrogated me. Sometimes the voice spoke directly to the agent, accusing me, exactly at the moment when the interlocutor accused me, ”Benchimol told the experts who drew up his psychiatric report.

He was sent to a court asylum, where he was “subjected to intensive psychiatric treatment,” according to a report from the time. He received “a series of eight electric shocks, and the changes in his depression are not yet noticeable. There are still three suicide attempts recorded in the medical record. ”

After his arrest, Benchimol left for Chile. In 1973, as a result of the coup by Augusto Pinochet, he was detained and tortured at the National Stadium in Santiago.

Solange Lorenzo Gomes, Bahia and Rio de Janeiro

Torture and Madness - Solange Gomes was featured in the newspapers as a

Solange Gomes has been featured in the newspapers as a “repentant terrorist.”

Image: Brazil Never Again

A member of MR-8 (October 8 Revolutionary Movement), Solange was wanted when she began hallucinations. He decided to give up. In the newspapers of the time, she was portrayed as a “repentant terrorist” attracted by “sex” to subversive activities. In prison, “he was the victim of horrific visions.”

At the trial in a military court, she was found incapable of responsibility, that is, unable to answer for her actions, and sentenced to a term of compulsory placement in psychiatric institutions. She was treated with electroshock and convulsive therapy (induction of seizures).

After being released, she did not recover. “I have witnessed her tremendous efforts to recover from a serious mental, psychotic condition as a result of her arrest,” her husband told the Commission on Political Disappearances. Solange committed suicide in 1982.

Vitor de Sousa Couto, Rio Grande do Sul

A soldier of the Rio Grande do Sul military brigade, Couto was guarding Leonel Brizola’s house when the military coup took place. After Brizola went into exile in Uruguay, Koutu went to the barracks and was immediately arrested.

Expelled from the troops, he was placed in a court shelter, from which he sometimes escaped.

In his testimony, he said that he was forcibly hospitalized on the grounds that after falling while serving in the army, he “began to suffer from epilepsy.” In one of his escapes, he went to Uruguay, where he attempted suicide, “because he was desperate, afraid to return to Brazil and be arrested again.”

The number of cases may be higher than defined by UOL - Yasmin Ayumi / UOL - Yasmin Ayumi / UOL

The number of cases may be more than the UOL defined

Image: Yasmin Ayumi / UOL

Manuel Domingos Neto, Ceara

A member of the AP (People’s Action), he was arrested and physically and mentally tortured. He could not sleep because he was awakened by the blows or screams of women – which he thought came from a militant friend who was also in prison, or from her sister, who, according to the torturers, was “on a stick.”

He walked in “desperate and thought of suicide.” “I was very frail, weighed 40 kg. I passed out and spent ten days without the slightest idea of ​​things. Then they took me to a military hospital, where I was imprisoned for many months, ”the armed men observed.

“His mental state” was such that he “had to take 20 psychotropic pills every day.”

Wesley Macedo de Almeida, Bahia

Torture and Madness - Photo of Wesley Almeida in his prison file - Bahia State Public Archives - Bahia State Public Archives

Photo of Wesley Almeida on his prison file

Image: Bahia State Archives

A student in Jackie, Bahia, and one of the founders of the city’s film club, he and his colleagues were arrested after “a veritable avalanche of subversive brochures swept across the city.” Sent to El Salvador, he was greatly tortured. His family went to the state capital of Bahia to look for him, but Wesley was not imprisoned. “When they found him, he was already at the orphanage,” says the younger brother.

To this day, he still needs psychiatric treatment. “Before the prison he had nothing. It could even be latent, but it developed in prison, ”says a relative. “The torture affected him, people cannot bear what he went through. In a sense, he remains a political prisoner. He remains a recluse, does not leave the house due to injuries and illnesses. [psíquica]… “

IV, Rio Grande do Sul

Arrested by the military dictatorship, he was sent to the Porto Alegre military hospital for psychiatric treatment in 1970. “In prison, he felt deprived of everything, he cried all day, covering his head with his hands, he could not eat, he could not sleep,” says one of the documents of the military justice about him. “I was living in anticipation of something worse,” and I had “symptoms of severe nervous depression.”

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Politics

Woman in political exercise as a RIG professional

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Women in institutional and government response

Women working in political, business and public environments are perceived as professionals in institutional and government relations (RIG), or lobby/advocacymore and more accepted and recognized.

The professional woman in RIG stands out for her knowledge of the legislative process and, above all, her ability to argue and defend positions, as well as to build narratives that convince political actors to defend certain projects, influence and set agendas for committee meetings and plenary sessions. meetings in the Legislative Chambers.

Thus, the power of the RelGovers women, or women in RIG, is not small. This, too, is deserving of contempt and restraint, which often comes from practices that threaten their body, voice, and perspective because they are women.

Historical aspects and how we are now

It is known that the construction of female and male identities and the formation of male superiority and dominance were determined by the biological and historically constructed fate of generations. The woman will have to procreate and take care of the family structure, while the man will be responsible for material diligence about livelihood and external contacts with the surrounding society.

In this context, the advancement of women in the socio-economic and political environment was perceived as opposing male domination, which consequently led to the development of forms of violence against women and the understanding of such violence.

However, there is a concern that increases with each generation and is accompanied by new ways of perceiving women in society and their social functions. The problems of the political rise of minority groups and insecure access to fundamental rights were overcome by creating state structures and laws that allowed social and political development based on access to rights. Two important political and legal advances have been made in advancing the figure and body of women beyond niches: access to specific public rights and policies and their economic empowerment.

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At present, the premises of the Legislative Chambers and state bodies are occupied by more and more women, who differ from men in figures, as a rule, white and middle-aged. However, the data also show that access to jobs, especially leadership positions, is dominated by men.

Understanding the problems associated with the increasing role of women in public and political life is largely related to understanding the forms of violence against women that are committed daily in these conditions. After all, it is through violence that we see resistance to the empowerment and social, economic and political ascent of women in society. When women occupy predominantly male positions, such as the legislative chamber, the judiciary, and the executive, the complexity of apparently patriarchal structures is called into question.

Violence Against Women RelGovers

How do we women of RelGovers feel and be victims of violence at different times in a professional context? Violence is felt, for example, when a woman is suddenly interrupted by a man in a meeting. This phenomenon is now known as interrupt and formally considered psychological abuse.

There are also situations in which a woman, realizing her expertise and positions, explains something important from a technical point of view, and then watches how a person internalizes his explanation and idea. This phenomenon is also recognized as psychological violence, the so-called. bropriation.

When more attention is paid to male figures, which happens when formal positions are declared in masculine rather than feminine, there is symbolic abuse due to the misuse of the masculine term when a woman holds office. and function.

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Women in politics in numbers

Studies such as the Inter-Parliamentary Union and the World Economic Forum, an organization that promotes reflection on the parliamentary context of several countries, condemn this Brazil ranks 142nd in ranging with 192 countries, in terms of women’s participation in politics. Also, according to the World Economic Forum, Brazil ranked 93rd out of 156 countries in 2021 for the presence of women in formal political power.

The decline in the presence of women in politics is so strong on a global scale that it deserves a separate term to explain this phenomenon. secessiontranslates as feminine recession. Studies show that under the current scenario, it will take 135.6 years to achieve full equality between women and men..

In addition, the IBGE gender indicators condemn various aspects of inequality. Women have the best educational records, have the best school attendance rates, and make up the majority of the population with tertiary education in Brazil. However, only 39.1% of leadership positions are held by women and Men’s earnings are on average 20.5% higher than women’s.

women in congress

It is important to note that in the Legislature from 2018 to 2022 in the Chamber of Deputies there are 77 deputies out of a total of 513. On the other hand, in the Federal Senate there are 16 senators out of a total of 81.

In the RIG environment, men make up the majority in career and leadership positions, making up 60% of coordinators and 70% of directors. Only assistant and analyst positions are dominated by women, accounting for 60% and 58% of positions, respectively.

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look into the future

The statistics give us a difficult scenario for women as they show the persistence of inequalities between women and men. Michelle Bachelet, United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, offers us the continuity of efforts and the importance of women occupying formal spaces of power: “When a woman enters politics, a woman changes. When many women enter politics, politics changes.”

Thus, advocacy before parliaments, which comes with the proposition of guidelines and legislative proposals and with the construction of qualified information – reports, policy analyzes and technical notes, demonstrates how the implementation of institutional and governmental relations expands the debate about public life. politics and law, and the promotion of different points of view and interests that deserve to be represented.

A gradual change in scenario with more women in RIG careers, in addition to advances in research and legislation to protect women and empower them socioeconomically, presents a promising picture. Overcoming the structures of patriarchal domination and inequality between women and men is slow, but gradually, women began to be perceived, heard and respected. This is what we are looking for more and more.

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At Roda Viva, Enrique Meirelles answers questions about the future in politics

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At Roda Viva, Enrique Meirelles answers questions about the future in politics

Interview with Roda Viva this Monday (26) Enrique Meirelles, former President of the Central Bank in the two governments of former President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT).

Former finance minister under Michel Temer and most recently financial secretary to former governor Joao Doria, he was also international president of BankBoston between 1996 and 1999 and candidate for President of the Republic in the 2018 elections for the Brazilian Democratic Movement (MDB). .

As finance minister, he approved labor reform and PEC 95, known as PEC do Seto dos Gastos Publicos. In this final stretch of the election campaign, he declared his support for the PT. He does not rule out talks about participating in a possible Lula government, but has already said that the budget ceiling must be maintained and respected.

In the program, he answers whether he will try to enter political life again or not. In 2018, he was MDB’s presidential candidate. He finished in seventh place with 1.2% of the valid votes.

“I am not a career politician, I applied in 2002 and was elected, and then went to the Central Bank, so I did not make a political career. After running for president in 2018, I thought I should make a proposal to the country. I did it and I think I did well. But I am not a professional politician. I was invited to be a candidate for senators, I analyzed it well and came to the conclusion that this is not what I want. I understand that this is not the time to start [a ser político]” replies.

Alex Ribeiro, Special Reporter for Valor Econômico, Alvaro Gribel, Columnist for O Globo, Economic Columnist for TV Gazeta Denise Campos de Toledo, Special Reporter for Folha de S. Paulo Julio Wiziack, and Tais Carranza, Reporter for BBC News, Brazil.

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See the full program:

With the presentation of Vera Magalhaes, the program will be broadcast live at 22:00 on the Kultura TV channel. broadcaster websitechannel do YouTube, Dailymotionand on social networks Twitter e facebook.

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Elenildo’s political legacy in Alagoas politics can be traced back to her sister-in-law, Correio dos Municipios

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Mozabel intends to salvage his late father-in-law’s seat in the Federal Chamber. She’s the favorite at your party

In 1999 and 2006, Palmeira dos Indios figured prominently in state and even national politics, holding representation in the National Congress. At that time, Elenildo Ribeiro was elected federal deputy for two terms, and the municipality became one of the most important positions in Brasilia. Now, 16 years later, Palmeira will again be able to occupy one of the nine Alagoas seats in the Federal Chamber. . Mozabel Ribeiro, Elenildo’s nurse and daughter-in-law, put her name up for discussion with a clear goal: to represent the city and work to find resources that will improve the quality of life of the population.

With a door-to-door and face-to-face campaign, as the candidate herself likes to say, Mozabel won more and more supporters and sympathizers, the possibility that Palmeira would get a woman as a federal candidate for the first time in her history took several days to form. back. I have my own political projects, my own ideas to help Palmeira and the entire state. As a federal deputy, I am sure that I will work hard for this people, whom I love so much and who need someone to fight for them, ”said Mozabel. As a deputy, Elenildo guaranteed the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease requiring hemodialysis. He was responsible for the construction of the Kakamba Dam, helping to solve the severe water shortage problem at the time. Neo ICU was also the work of the Palmeirense parliamentarian, as was the construction of the Uneal campus: “I want to take the place that once belonged to my father-in-law, the late Elenildo. Because he left a great legacy to our city when he was a deputy. I was in Brazil next to you and saw up close all the resources sent and all the work thought out by the people of Palmeyra,” he commented. Mozabel is running for the Republican Party. The abbreviation can be made by two federal deputies. Nivaldo Albuquerque is running for re-election and has a good chance of winning. The second vacancy will be open and the main name is palmeirense.

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“I want to take the place that once belonged to my father-in-law, the late Elenildo. Because he left a great legacy for our city when he was an MP,” says Mozabel Ribeiro, who is warmly welcomed by the Palmeirense electorate.

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