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Ending China’s poverty in 2020 will be Xi Jinping’s peak achievement. Coronavirus might have damaged it

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Ending China's poverty in 2020 will be Xi Jinping's peak achievement. Coronavirus might have damaged it

Then the new coronavirus pandemic tore through the global economy.

China closed factories in January and February to prevent a larger and viral outbreak, but at the same time it was very damaging to employment and domestic production.

Facing reporters at his home An tightly controlled annual press conference at the end of the NPC, Chinese Prime Minister Li Keqiang acknowledged that some Chinese citizens had been impoverished by the pandemic.

“Before Covid-19 hit, there were around five million people living below the poverty line. But because of this disease, some may have fallen back into poverty,” Li said. “Because of this, we now face a greater task in fulfilling our goals.”

Experts say Xi’s opportunity to achieve his big goal depends largely on whether Beijing can get the country back to work quickly.

“As long as work continues to recover or most recover at the end of the year, they will approach their poverty targets,” said Scott Rozelle, co-director of the Stanford University Rural Education Action Program.

“[But] there are only many things that say this will be a constant problem. “

A giant business

For most of the 20th century, China was one of the poorest countries in the world.

Beijing defines absolute poverty as survival of less than $ 324 a year (2,300 yuan), lower than half the World Bank’s poverty line which is more commonly used just under $ 700 a year.
As recently as 1990, nearly 658 million people live below the poverty line, according to Chinese government standards.

Since then, that number has declined rapidly. In 2012 the Chinese government announced that there were 115 million people living in absolute poverty. With less than 10 million left in poverty at the end of last year, it emerged that China is on the step to achieving its goals.

Shenjing He, a professor at Hong Kong University who studies urban poverty, said that although there were only a few people left in absolute poverty, they were among the most severely affected.

“They are people who really suffer because of the problem of poverty,” he said. “They live in very bad conditions and are usually located in mountainous areas and very remote places.”

Chinese government has committed to shopping $ 20.6 billion (146 billion yuan) for poverty alleviation by 2020 – a figure that does not include additional funding from local governments and private businesses, such as Alibaba (BABA) and Tencent (TCEHY), which is highly recommended to contribute.
This government money is distributed at the local level and how each province, city and city ends in poverty largely handed over to officials – a tactic Xi ​​said was designed to adjust policies to a certain area.
More than 750,000 Communist Party officials has been sent to villages across the country to assess local poverty, with many doing door-to-door interviews, according to experts and state media.
The solutions taken by local officials to the poverty crisis vary. In some places, villagers have been given out small loans to help start a business or given visibility on e-commerce sites like Taobao to sell their products better.
Other poverty alleviation measures have become controversial, such as plans to move millions of poor people from their rural communities to more urban environments. Some residents refused to move or find themselves stranded in new cities without jobs or marketable skills.

He, a Hong Kong professor, said the Chinese government had assigned domestic scientific bodies to monitor its progress in poverty alleviation by 2020, to ensure its goals were achieved in “a very important year.”

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But according to my colleagues in China, they don’t think there is a big problem for the government to fulfill this commitment, “he said.

This photo taken in September 2017 shows a billboard showing a photo of Chinese President Xi Jinping visiting residents in the village of Zhangzhuang in Lankao in central Henan province of China.

Millions of people are unemployed

Independent experts say getting an accurate picture of rural poverty on the ground is difficult, partly because of the large size of China and partly because of the secrecy of its government, especially under the increasingly authoritarian and opaque Xi government.

But there are already indications that China’s poor may have been hit by the coronavirus economic crisis.

Unemployment in China has surged after the virus, officially rising as high 6.2% of the population in February. The Chinese government has not officially released the total number of unemployed people, but according to CNN calculations, it will be around 29 million.

However, the official figures do not include people in rural communities or a large number of 290 million migrant workers who work in construction, manufacturing and other important but underpaid activities.

80 million Chinese may have lost their jobs. 9 million more will soon compete for jobs, too
If the migrants are included, as many as 80 million people can get out of work by the end of March, according to an article co-authored in April by Zhang Bin, an economist at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, a think tank run by the government.

‘Perfect storm’

A survey of rural Chinese families by Stanford University Rural Education Action Program (REAP) in the first four months of this year, when the country was worst affected by the virus, it was found that 92% of respondents in the villages had seen their income levels reduced by pandemic protection measures.

“The work of rural workers is basically zero for a whole month after quarantine begins,” the report said.

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Half of the villages surveyed by the Stanford University team reported an average loss of around $ 281 to $ 704 (2,000 to 5,000 yuan) in March.

To cope with the overwhelming income, “half of them have reduced nutrition and food diversity – they have switched to wheat and vegetable diets rather than meat and fruit,” said Rozelle of REAP, who wrote this research. “They already are also reduce spending on their children’s education and spending on non-Covid health problems. “

REAP is not the only survey to find large reductions in rural salaries during coronavirus. Research by Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), quoted in the state-run China Daily media, found that 80% of agricultural workers interviewed said their income could fall by more than 20%.

Some CAAS estimates found that farmers’ salaries could fall by up to 40%.

To make matters worse for some rural communities, parts of China have witnessed the worst flooding in decades in June, just as they began to recover from coronavirus.

According to state media, tens of thousands of homes have been destroyed along the Yangtze River and at least 12 million people were affected, causing an economy of around $ 3.6 billion.

John Donaldson, poverty expert and associate professor at Singapore Management University, said that in many ways coronaviruses have become a “perfect storm” for people living in poverty in China, affecting many different sectors at the same time.

“The plant is still not operating at full power, partly because of fear of the corona virus, you have construction [being put on hold]”Even hotels that buy a lot of food from the countryside are low in business,” he said.

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In addition, Donaldson said that local officials responsible for police poverty alleviation have been troubled by their struggle against the corona virus.

Message

Despite the setbacks, the ruling Communist Party and government-run media have run joint campaigns to convince their domestic audiences that they will meet their targets.

In early June, Xi traveled to the northern province of Ningxia to visit families and observe a workshop, built with a poverty alleviation fund, where villagers produce cartons.

“(Xi) has emphasized efforts to secure a decisive victory in building a society that is prosperous in all respects and eradicates poverty,” Xinhua government news agency words in his writing from the tour.

Experts generally agree that it is very unlikely that the Chinese government will announce that it has lost its target of poverty alleviation by the end of 2020. Donaldson said that the target is likely to be met or they will be sufficiently fudged to say they have met.

But there are fears that even if Beijing fulfills its goal of eliminating absolute poverty by the end of this year, there is still a long way to go to improve the lives of hundreds of millions of its citizens.

For years, Xi has claimed China to be “a fairly prosperous society.”

However, speaking at his press conference in May, Li said that there were still 600 million people – around 40% of the population – living on a monthly income of only about $ 140 (1,000 yuan).

“It’s not even enough to rent a room in a medium-sized Chinese city,” Li said.

Donaldson said that his biggest concern was that once the Chinese government announced it had eradicated absolute poverty, local governments could stop considering all poverty as an important issue, regardless millions of people who still need urgent help.

“I mean, that’s the bottom part line: If poverty is eliminated, how many poor people after this campaign? Nobody will know, “he said.

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Portuguese football player mourns Fernando Chalana | About UEFA

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Portuguese football player mourns Fernando Chalana |  About UEFA

Fernando Chalana was one of the most outstanding players in Portuguese football, he represented Benfica for 13 seasons and also played for Bordeaux, Belenenses and Estrela da Amadora. Between 1976 and 1988, he played 27 times for the national team, scoring two goals, saying goodbye to the Quinas shirt in a friendly match between Portugal and Sweden (0-0) on October 12, 1988.

Chalana had an impact on the Portuguese national team that played in the 1984 European Championship final, even finishing in the top 11 of the tournament.

President of the Portuguese Football Federation Fernando Gomes left a message of condolences in connection with the death of Fernando Chalana, which occurred on Wednesday.

“It is with deep sadness that I mourn the death of Fernando Chalana, Portugal player and eternal leader of Benfica.

The “little genius” spread magic and art across the football fields, delighted the fans with his imagination, aroused the admiration of all sports fans and was deservedly elevated to the category of idols.

Chalana was undoubtedly one of the best players in the history of our football and his name made Portugal stand out in the world. I especially remember his performances at the European Championships in 1984. With his disappearance, Portuguese sport and football lost their mythical connection.

Chalana, a respected player on the field and by all football fans, was a man of exceptional qualities.

I leave words of comfort to my family and friends during this difficult time. To Benfica, I express my deepest condolences.”

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Portugal: discrimination against Brazilians is growing – 08/09/2022 – World

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Portugal: discrimination against Brazilians is growing - 08/09/2022 - World

“Brazilian citizenship” was the main reason given in discrimination complaints filed in Portugal in 2021, accounting for 26.7% of the total 408 complaints received by the Commission for Equality and Against Racial Discrimination (CICDR).

While overall, the number of complaints of discrimination in the country decreased by 37.7% compared to 2020 (655) and by 6.4% compared to 2019 (436), reports specifically against Brazilians increased. In 2021, 109 complaints were received for this reason, and in 2020 – 96; growth by 13.5%.

The jump is especially pronounced compared to 2017, when there were only 17 registrations. However, in the same year, the total number of discrimination complaints was also much lower, at 179 complaints. The data is part of the country’s latest Annual Report on the State of Racial and Ethnic Equality and Non-Discrimination, released quietly by the Anti-Discrimination Commission on Tuesday (9).

According to the document, the expressions “Gypsy nationality” with 67 complaints (16.4%) and “Black/black/black/black race” with 65 complaints (15.9%) are expressed “with significantly lower values”.

The more general expression “foreigners/foreigners/immigrants in general” comes in fourth place with 18 complaints (4.4% of the total) “corresponding to cases in which the victims felt they were discriminated against for being foreigners, immigrants or non-migrants”. who are Portuguese citizens. , we are not talking about a crime against a specific nationality.

In 2021, legally residing Brazilians made up about 30% of the nearly 700,000 foreigners living in the country, according to data from the SEF (Service for Foreigners and Borders), in 2021 — partial data released by the agency on Tuesday showed that the country’s community continued to grow. .

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In Portugal, depending on the specifics of the case, episodes of ethnic and racial discrimination can be classified as a crime or a so-called misdemeanor, a lesser crime. This is how most registered offenders are classified, resulting in lighter penalties. These episodes are analyzed by the CICDR, which has autonomy and decision-making authority.

“CICDR has the power to make decisions and impose fines [multas] and additional sanctions in the framework of administrative offenses. But such decisions can always be challenged in court. Sometimes yes, sometimes no,” explains Pedro Barosa, Partner at Abreu Advogados. In 2021, the Commission issued only two sentences, one fine and one warning (a kind of public warning).

A survey carried out by the Combat project of the Center for Social Studies (CES) of the University of Coimbra analyzed data on discrimination from 2006 to 2016 and showed that about 80% of cases initiated by the Commission for Equality and Against Racial Discrimination end up being shelved. A guilty verdict was handed down in 7.5% of cases. However, in appeals overturning or contesting these decisions, convictions are reduced to 5.8%.

According to José Falcao, leader of the NGO SOS Racismo, several convictions in Portugal mean that, in practice, crimes of racism in the country go unpunished. “The law does absolutely nothing to combat racial discrimination. This law in its current form is useless,” he says, citing the case of MP Andre Ventura, leader of the far-right Chega party.

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CICDR fined the parliamentarian 3,770 euros (19,700 reais) for comments that were deemed discriminatory against Roma ethnicity on a Facebook page, but Ventura filed an appeal and the court acquitted him.

According to Falcao, the difficulty in exposing cases of discrimination often begins at the police stations, when the police still routinely dissuade complainants.

In an interview with Sheet In July, Parliamentary Affairs Minister Ana Catarina Méndez said the Portuguese government was investigating complaints that already pointed to an increase in discrimination, but stressed that the increase was also due to migrants’ greater awareness of the issue. which leads to more complaints.

Psychologist Cynthia de Paula, president of Casa do Brasil in Lisbon, a non-governmental organization that provides assistance to the Brazilian community, also believes that immigrants are becoming more attentive. We have received more messages [de discriminação]but I think a larger denunciation movement has also been created,” he said.

In this sense, in addition to increasing racial debate in some parts, the very characteristics of the new wave of Brazilian migration to Portugal may contribute to a greater willingness to openly discuss complaints of discrimination. This group, which is more active and includes many students, professionals and entrepreneurs, has formed groups and associations and used social media to raise awareness of the issue.

This topic was especially discussed in the country after the great resonance of racist insults made by a Portuguese woman. against the children of Brazilian actors Giovanna Eubank and Bruno Gallasso. The case took place on July 30 in a restaurant in Costa da Caparica, near Lisbon. The woman was arrested but later released by the police.

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The couple’s press service states that the aggressor “asked them to leave the restaurant and return to Africa, among other absurdities pronounced to the children as“ dirty blacks ”. The actors wrote a statement to the police. The Ministry of Industry and Trade confirmed that they had launched an investigation into this case.

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“The Portuguese coach has the ability to adapt quickly”

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"The Portuguese coach has the ability to adapt quickly"

PAulo Fonseca couldn’t have dreamed of a better start to the French Championship, beating Auxerre 4-1.

in an interview provided by the official media of Lillethe Portuguese coach explained what philosophy to apply in the French club this season.

“My philosophy is to have the ball. Dominate games. Make the team play the ball with great dynamics. With a strong reaction when we lose the ball. It’s hard for me when I feel like the team doesn’t have the ball. … be the protagonist of the game and I like to dominate. I have to know what to do with the ball. I have to know how I can find the right moments and spaces to attack,” Paulo Fonseca began.

“Sometimes I pay special attention to central defenders. Not because I was a fantastic player, but because I wasn’t. But I know how they feel at certain moments in the game. Sometimes I pay more attention to some details. went through those moments and those details,” he added.

The coach also named 4-2-3-1 as his preferred tactical system: “It’s a system that we can use against any other system. However, the system is something static only at the beginning of the game. everything is different. It depends on the dynamics of the team. It depends on the movements you want from the team. For me, the initial system is not the most important. More than that, it’s team dynamics.”

When asked what coaches inspired him in his career, Paulo Fonseca pointed to the Portuguese without hesitation.

“Many Portuguese coaches inspire me. I have many names in several fields that inspire me a lot. We have a good coaching school. The federation with this president changed football in Portugal a lot. So many Portuguese coaches around the world. We have the ability to adapt to different countries and different styles of play. I think the Portuguese coach has this ability to quickly adapt to different circumstances,” Paulo Fonseca said, calling Guardiola “an inspiration”. “It’s the best in the world,” he concluded.

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Read also: Lille de Paulo Fonseca starts with everything in the new edition of Ligue 1

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