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Aggressive seaweed hits one of the most remote reefs in the world



Aggressive seaweed hits one of the most remote reefs in the world

HONOLULU – Researchers say the seaweed species found recently killed a large patch of coral on a reef that was once pristine and quickly spread in one of the most remote and protected marine environments on earth.

A study from the University of Hawaii and others said seaweed spreads faster than anything they see in the Northwest Hawaiian Islands, a nature reserve that stretches more than 1,300 miles north of the main Hawaiian Islands.

That research published in the journal PLOS ONE on Tuesday.

Algae break easily and roll around at the bottom of the ocean like tumbleweed, scientists say, covering nearby reefs in thick vegetation that outperform coral to get space, sunlight and nutrients.

“This is very damaging seaweed with the potential to grow entire coral reefs,” said biologist Heather Spalding, study co-author and longtime Hawaii algae researcher. “We need to find out where it is currently found and what we can do to manage it.”

In 2016, government researchers conducted a routine survey of Pearl and Hermes Atoll when they discovered a small clump of seaweed they had never seen before.

Last summer, they returned and found that the algae had taken over a very large area of ​​coral reef – in some areas that included “everything, as far as the eye could see” – with seaweed about 8 inches (20 cm) thick, said Spalding, which belongs to among them. divers there.

“Everything underneath is dead,” he said.

The area largely lacks a large school of tropical fish and other marine life that normally cruises on vibrant reefs and fish that normally eat algae do not graze on new seaweed, the researchers said.

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Diving along the reefs outside the atoll 15 miles (24 kilometers) reveals seaweed in various densities and depths.

Scientists say the actual coverage area is likely to be far greater than documented because they were unable to survey many sites during their brief visit.

Close to Midway Atoll, where air and sea battles were very important in World War II, Pearl and Hermes Atoll are located in the central Pacific about 2,000 miles (3,200 kilometers) from Asia and North America.

Uninhabited atolls are at the Papahanaumokuakea National Marine Monument, 600,000 square miles (1.6 million square kilometers), one of the largest protected marine environments in the world.

Noting that each seaweed mat is as large as several soccer fields, researchers say the algae can dramatically change the Pearl and Herme reefs and threaten the entire Hawaiian islands if they spread.

The main island of Hawaii has some invasive seaweed, but cases in the remote northwest are rare.

“We have not, until now, seen a big problem like this where we have disturbing species that come and make such big changes in a short time to the reef,” said University of Hawaii at Manoa Interim Associate Dean Dean Dean and Professor. Alison Sherwood, chief scientist in this study.

The researchers studied seaweed DNA to try to determine its origin but concluded that it was a new species of red algae that they named Chondria tumulosa.

Algae can spread in various ways, Sherwood said. This produces clumps similar to tumbleweed that move around the immediate area, but also produce spores that can travel much greater distances.

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Among the unknowns is why algae grows so fast and how it reaches remote locations.

Scientists say seaweed blooms occur all over the world and can be seasonal, but this does not appear to be the case. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has monitored this site for more than 20 years.

“When you see something unusual in the last few years, you can be sure that this is something rather special compared to things that change from year to year,” said Queensland University Professor Peter Mumby, who is also chief scientist for the Great Barrier Reef Foundation Australia. “But it becomes a problem every time you see an ecosystem starting to show symptoms … like this.”

Mumby, who was not involved with Hawaii research, said more had to be done to understand what was driving the growth of seaweed.

But he noted that in other parts of the world algae bloom often because fish that eat plants have been harvested or forced to move due to environmental changes.

New seaweed could have been introduced by ships or sea debris. But no fishing is permitted at Pearl and Hermes and every boat that enters the area must be inspected and cleaned up. The species can also be native, after living in small gaps and gaps before changes in local conditions cause it to bloom, the researchers said.

The NOAA research crew will return soon to study the outbreak and find out if the current has spread it to the nearest Midway, home to the Battle of Midway National Memorial, the base of the US Fish and Wildlife Service and the region’s only airfield.

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The first business order, officials say, is to make sure anyone who studies seaweed doesn’t accidentally pass it on.

“All of our diving equipment, all of our vessels, are all saturated with bleach,” said Randall Kosaki, NOAA’s research coordinator at sea monuments and expedition leader for the previous survey.

“If something like this goes back to Waikiki or anywhere in the main Hawaiian Islands it will be an ecological disaster, but also an economic disaster,” Kosaki said. “You can imagine what tourism would do to have algae like this that grow too high on coral reefs.”

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September, Holiday Month for the Deaf – Portuguese (Brazil)



Mutirão Opens To Negotiation Of Individuals' Overdue Debts - Português (Brazil)

September is a very important and visible month for deaf people, with three dates that raise awareness and celebrate achievements that are part of the entire community’s trajectory and struggle. These are: – International Sign Language Day, September 23; – Day of the Deaf, 26 September; and Libra National Interpreter and Translator Day on September 30th. With a focus on the deaf community, the Department of Education is promoting several initiatives in this area.

The first is aimed at changing the scenario of educational and language policy based only on the inclusive perspective of including a deaf student in the school environment without guaranteeing procedures that enhance accessibility in his education. The National Guidelines for Bilingual Education for the Deaf integrate all stages of basic education and are based on the promotion of bilingual curricula and pedagogical practices for the deaf: Brazilian Sign Language (Libras) and written Portuguese.

Through the Department of Special Education, the MEC coordinates with interested municipalities the construction, renovation or expansion of bilingual schools for the deaf. To date, 11 locations in Brazil have shown interest in the project. To complement this phase, the Libras National Textbook Program (PNLD) provides accessible formats to deaf students and public school teachers of basic education in the country.

In the academic world, in partnership with universities, advanced training courses are offered for teachers, managers and professionals who want to work with bilingual education for the deaf. Thanks to the projects of various institutions, there are currently 3,520 vacancies for teaching the deaf.

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On the Internet, Canal Libras is a space for communication and content distribution with a focus on the national educational network, from early childhood education to higher education.


Another important date: The National Institute for Education for the Deaf (Ines) turns 165 on the same Libra and the Deaf Day, September 26th. Within the structure of the Ministry of Education, the Institute stands out as a national reference in the field of deafness, necessary to support the formulation of public policies, and then for their implementation in the field. The Institute works to promote education for deaf children, youth and adults.

With information from Ministry of Education.

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Mother of autistic boy attacked by CR7 criticizes Portuguese again



Mother of autistic boy attacked by CR7 criticizes Portuguese again

The case of Cristiano Ronaldo’s aggression against an autistic fan continues to be heard in England. Sarah Kelly, mother of Jake Harding, has asked the English Football Federation to punish the Portuguese star.

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Sarah’s complaint comes after the league filed a complaint against a Manchester United player for aggression against Jake in the Manchester team’s match against Everton on April 9 last season in the Premier League. After an unsuccessful result, the Portuguese dropped a fan’s mobile phone on the way to the locker room.

According to Sarah, she and her son once again became victims of offenses in social networks after the announcement of the complaint against the attacker.

“People are following me, saying that I am rebelling again, but I didn’t know anything about it. The case should have been heard six months ago. My son talks every day about what happened to him. He still hasn’t returned his phone,” he said.

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Jake’s mother still asks how the player manages to sleep at night after what happened. “Let’s hope he finally gets the right punishment. He can’t keep getting away with it. Your behavior is unacceptable…” Sarah concluded.

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Marseille in California. ″Where the Portuguese is, there is Portugal″



Marseille in California.  ″Where the Portuguese is, there is Portugal″

“You are the future,” President Marcelo Rebelo de Souza told a three-year-old girl dressed in traditional Portuguese clothing who came out to greet him on the podium where he spoke at Artesia Portuguese Salon. The city, located on the outskirts of Los Angeles, has not hosted the President of the Portuguese Republic since 1989. This weekend, he did it with pomp and the setting of an ornate Portuguese-American community bursting with pride.

“We have never lost the honor and responsibility of being representatives of this beautiful flag,” said Jimmy Enes, a member of Artesia DES, a Portuguese descendant, in a welcoming speech delivered in perfect Portuguese. “When we are asked who we are, we always answer”i am portuguese“and not”Portuguese-American“or ‘Portuguese American’,” he said. “That’s why we’re trying step by step to protect our heritage on the outskirts of Los Angeles, one of the greatest cities in the world.”

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