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There could be 36 communicating intelligent civilizations in our galaxy, study says

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There could be 36 communicating intelligent civilizations in our galaxy, study says

Maybe we’re not.

Scientists have calculated that there could be a minimum of 36 active, communicating intelligent civilizations in our Milky Way galaxy, according to a new study. However, due to time and distance, we may never actually know if they exist or ever existed.

Previous calculations along these lines have been based on the Drake equation, which was written by astronomer and astrophysicist Frank Drake in 1961.

“Drake developed an equation which in principle can be used to calculate how many Communicating Extra-Terrestrial Intelligent (CETI) civilizations there may be in the Galaxy,” the authors wrote in their study. “However, many of its terms are unknowable and other methods must be used to calculate the likely number of communicating civilizations.”

So scientists at the University of Nottingham developed their own approach.

“The key difference between our calculation and previous ones based on the Drake equation is that we make very simple assumptions about how life developed,” said study coauthor Christopher Conselice, a professor of astrophysics at the University of Nottingham, in an email to CNN.

“One of them is that life forms in a scientific way — that is if the right conditions are met then life will form. This avoids impossible to answer questions such as ‘what fraction of planets in a habitable zone of a star will form life?’ and ‘what fraction of life will evolve into intelligent life?’ as these are not answerable until we actually detect life, which we have not yet done.”

Astronomers witness the steadfast beating heart of a black hole

They developed what they call the Astrobiological Copernican Principle to establish weak and strong limits on life in the galaxy. These equations include the history of star formation in our galaxy and the ages of stars, the metal content of the stars and the likelihood of stars hosting Earth-like planets in their habitable zones where life could form.

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The habitable zone is the right distance from a star, not too hot or too cold, where liquid water and life as we know it may be possible on the surface of a planet.

Of these factors, habitable zones are critical, but orbiting a quiet, stable star for billions of years may be the most critical, Conselice said.

Astronomers are changing the way we think of 'potentially habitable' planets

“The two Astrobiological Copernican limits are that intelligent life forms in less than 5 billion years, or after about 5 billion years — similar to on Earth where a communicating civilization formed after 4.5 billion years,” said coauthor Tom Westby, an assistant professor in the University of Nottingham’s faculty of engineering, in a statement.

The Astrobiological Copernican Strong limit is that life must form between 4.5 to 5.5 billion years, as on Earth, while the weak limit is that a planet takes at least 4 billion years to form life, but it can form anytime after that, the researchers said.

“It is called the Astrobiological Copernican Principle because it makes the assumption that our existence is not special,” Conselice said. “That is, if the conditions in which intelligent life on Earth also developed somewhere else in the Galaxy then intelligent life would develop there in a similar way.”

Based on their calculations using the Astrobiological Copernican Strong limit, they determined that there are likely 36 active and communicating intelligent civilizations across our galaxy. This assumes that life forms the way it does on Earth — which is our only understanding of it at the moment. It also assumes that the metal content of the stars hosting these planets are equal to that of our sun, which is rich in metals, Westby said.

Astronomers spot blue 'beast' of an explosion in the universe

The researchers believed the strong limit is the most likely because “it still allows intelligent life to form within a billion years after it did on Earth, which seems like plenty of time,” Conselice said.

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Another assumption of these potential civilizations is that they’re making their presence known in some way via signals.

Astronomers may have found an Earth-like exoplanet orbiting a sun-like star

Currently, we’ve only been producing signals like radio transmissions from satellites and televisions for a short time. Our “technological” civilization is about a hundred years old. So imagine about 36 others doing the same thing across the galaxy.

The researchers were surprised that the number was so small — but not zero. “That is fairly remarkable,” Conselice said.

Even though this study only looked at our galaxy, distance is an inhibiting factor. The researchers calculated that the average distance between these potential civilizations would equal about 17,000 light-years. Detecting those signals or sending communications using current technology would take so long that it would be nearly impossible.

Astronomers find the Wolfe Disk, an unlikely galaxy, in the distant universe

“The search for intelligent life is only expected to yield a positive observation if the average life-span of [communicating extra-terrestrial intelligence] within our Galaxy is 3,060 years. That is to say, our communicating civilization here on Earth will need to persist for 6,120 years beyond the advent of long-range radio technology (approximately 100 years ago) before we can expect a [search for extra-terrestrial intelligence] two-way communication.”

Under the more relaxed assumptions of the Weak Copernican case, there would be a minimum of 928 civilizations communicating in our galaxy today, according to the study, meaning more of them at closer range. This would only require about 700 years to make a detection.

Life span of a civilization

“It is clear that the lifetime of a communicating civilization is the key aspect within this problem, and very long lifetimes are needed for those within the Galaxy to contain even a few possible active contemporary civilizations,” the researchers wrote in their study.

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And then there’s the question of survival. Are other potential civilizations as long-lived as those on Earth?

The 'beating hearts' of these pulsating stars create music to astronomers' ears

If the search for this life reveals nothing within a distance of 7,000 light-years, the researchers suggest that this could mean one of two things.

First, it could suggest that the lifetimes of these civilizations are shorter than 2,000 years — which could mean that our own is nearing its end.

Second, it could suggest that life on Earth is unique and occurs in a much more random process than the Astrobiological Copernican Limits established in the study.

The Milky Way may be kicking stars into its outer halo

Not all factors or limitations were included in the study, like the fact that the small M-dwarf stars these Earth-like planets may be orbiting may release harmful radiation “that would make life difficult to exist,” which is a debated issue, Conselice said. M-dwarf stars are common in our galaxy and have been known to host rocky, Earth-size planets.

Next, the researchers will look beyond our galaxy to see if life may exist outside of its boundaries.

“Our new research suggests that searches for extraterrestrial intelligent civilizations not only reveals the existence of how life forms, but also gives us clues for how long our own civilization will last,” Conselice said.

“If we find that intelligent life is common then this would reveal that our civilization could exist for much longer than a few hundred years, alternatively if we find that there are no active civilizations in our Galaxy it is a bad sign for our own long-term existence. By searching for extraterrestrial intelligent life — even if we find nothing — we are discovering our own future and fate.”

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In the last round of Portugal x Morocco was the decisive Cristiano Ronaldo and the Portuguese a la Gordon Banks.

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In the last round of Portugal x Morocco was the decisive Cristiano Ronaldo and the Portuguese a la Gordon Banks.

Portugal and Morocco met in the group stage of the 2018 World Cup, and the Europeans won 1-0.

Portugal and Morocco will meet this Saturday (10) in the quarterfinals world Cup from Qatar. The last meeting between the two teams was in 2018, in the group stage of the World Cup held in Russia, and the Portuguese had the star of Cristiano Ronaldo and a brilliant performance by Rui Patricio to win the confrontation 1-0.




CR7 scored Portugal’s winning goal against Morocco in 2018 (Photo: FADEL SENNA/AFP)

Photo: Lance!

After scoring a hat-trick on his debut against Spain in 2018, CR7 went on a good phase and took four minutes to put the Portuguese team ahead against Atlas Lions. Four years later, the script changed for the Portuguese star, who was no longer unanimous in Portugal and lost the title to Gonçal Ramos, who scored a hat-trick against Switzerland.

Another notable figure for Portugal against Morocco in 2018 was goalkeeper Rui Patricio. The Africans dominated the match and had 15 submissions. In the 12th minute of the first half, the goalkeeper saved a header from Belanda in a move similar to Gordon Banks’ “save of the century” against Pelé in the 1970 World Cup.

In Qatar, Rui Patricio came on as a substitute and “passed the baton” to Diogo Costa, the 23-year-old who failed his debut but was an important figure in the Portuguese team’s campaign in the competition.

Frenchman Hervé Renard managed Morocco in Russia, a sensational manager in Qatar who managed to get Saudi Arabia to beat Argentina with one of the biggest upsets in World Cup history.

The winner of Portugal and Morocco will play either France or England in the semi-finals of the World Cup. The Portuguese have not been in the top four teams since the 2006 World Cup in Germany. On the other hand, the Atlas Lions want to be the first African team to reach the semi-finals of the Cup.

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Portuguese government to allocate 30 million euros to help Ukrainian refugees in Poland – Cidade Hoje

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Portuguese government to allocate 30 million euros to help Ukrainian refugees in Poland – Cidade Hoje

The City Council of Santo Tirso today returned to Desportivo das Aves the Portuguese Football Cup trophy won in the 2017/2018 season, which the municipality bought at an auction two months ago for 30,000 euros.

“This was an injustice that our own justice wanted to bring up for discussion, but it needs to be reconsidered. It is disgusting that there are legal aspects that prevent the title from passing into the hands of others when it has been very well won on the field. The city council did only what it was responsible for, which is to keep the heritage of the population, the club and the land in the right place, ”Mayor Alberto Costa repeated to reporters.

The handover of the scepter took place on the full lawn of the CD Aves stadium, in Vila das Aves, between the winning reception of Desportivo das Aves 1930 in favor of Rio de Moinhos (3-1), in the 13th round of the 4th Series of the Football Association Division of Honor Porto.

Conquered on 20 May 2018 by beating Sporting CP in the final of the Queen’s competition (2-1) at the Estadio Nacional in Oeiras, the trophy was laid in the context of northern South Africa’s insolvency, having been put up for public auction from August to October.

A “double” by Alexandre Guedes against a goal from Colombian Fredy Montero “sealed” the unprecedented success of “Avences”, then managed by José Mota, just five days after the invasion of the Accademia de Alcochete, where supporters attacked several “Leonin players”.

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“The City Council of Santo Tirso did this out of respect for those who were on the field, after a week when it seemed that Desportivo das Aves did not exist. I returned to what I did in good conscience as mayor. We took care of the formal aspects so that what happened would not happen again, ”admitted Alberto Costa.

The ceremony was attended by the footballers, technicians and other staff involved in winning the Portuguese Cup, whose scepter was carried by the then goalkeeper and “captain” Kim and striker Alexandre Guedes on the pitch to be symbolically handed over by the mayor to the newly appointed sworn-in president of the Vila das Aves club, Pedro Pereira.

“Feeling is what you felt in the stadium. There was gratitude for the most important achievement in our history, which also marked the beginning of the renaissance that we are striving for, in order for the club to return to the heights that it has reached in the past. The Portuguese Cup is well placed. The legal departments have tried to ensure that this is not going anywhere,” said successor António Freitas.

The auction was held by the Judicial Court of Comarca Porto and ended exactly two months ago, setting a minimum threshold of 1360 euros, set at an initial price of 800 euros and a base price of 1600 euros. trophy.

The greatest achievement of Desportivo das Aves was arrested by the SAD in July 2020 when the Chinese-led administration Wei Zhao failed to fulfill the licensing requirements in the professional competition of the 2020/21 season with the Clubs League and rejected an appeal to the Council of the Referee of the Portuguese Football Federation.

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The Nordics had already been relegated to the II League, but “fell” by administrative means in the Campeonato de Portugal, then in the third national level due to wage arrears and unilateral layoffs of players, technical staff and employees.

SAD, which also witnessed the confiscation of two Desportivo das Aves buses, decided to withdraw from the Portuguese Championship in September 2020, five months before the Santo Tirso District Judicial Court declared it insolvent.

Almost €37,500 debts from SAD to three foreign clubs resulted in FIFA preventing the club from signing new players since August 2020, but two months later, António Freitas’ management decided to recreate the futsal and football sections that began to represent the new club. called Desportivo das Aves 1930.

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IBGE has already conducted a census of almost 80% of the Brazilian population – Português (Brazil)

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Mutirão Opens To Negotiation Of Individuals' Overdue Debts - Português (Brazil)

Almost 80% of Brazil’s population is already registered this year. From the beginning of work, from August 1 to December 5, 168,018,345 people were registered, in 59,192,875 households, which corresponds to 78.73% of the estimated population of the country. The data is taken from the fourth balance sheet of the 2022 demographic census released this Wednesday (December 7) by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGS).

Of the total number of respondents, the majority live in the Southeast region, 39.54%, followed by the Northeast (29.43%), South (14.76%), North (8.79%) and Midwest (7 .44%). So far, 48.4% of the census population was male and 51.6% female.

According to IBGE, the state with the highest proportion of registered people to estimated population is Piauí (96.2%), followed by Sergipe (91.2%) and Rio Grande do Norte (89.8%). The least advanced are Mato Grosso (65.9%), Amapa (66.9%) and Espirito Santo (70.67%).

In the case of Sergipe and Piaui, BIGE has already completed the first phase of data collection, with census takers traveling around the state visiting addresses. The institute will now begin the process of restoring homes that were registered for absent residents and those that people refused to respond to the census.

So far, about 2.59% of households have refused to respond, but IBGE expects to reduce this percentage by the end of the operation after all persistence protocols have been applied.

States that are close to completing collection will also be able to count on Disque-Censo, a free service available from 8:00 am to 9:30 pm. Those who have not been visited by census takers can call the agency at 137 and take part in the survey. At the moment, the service is only available in the states of Sergipe and Piauí.

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In this balance sheet, BIGE discloses for the first time general census data in subnormal agglomerations, defined as “irregular occupation of land for residential purposes in urban areas and which are generally characterized by irregular urban structure, lack of basic public services and being in areas with limited access”. Until December 5, 12,337,295 people lived in the country, which is about 7% of the registered population.

In addition, 1,489,003 natives and 1,208,702 quilombolas have already been registered.

The institute is facing difficulties due to a lack of staff to conduct censuses in some locations. Throughout the country, from November 28 to December 4, 60,611 enumerators worked at IBGS, which is 33.1% of the total number of available vacancies.

Census takers will always be in uniform, with an IBGE vest, census cap, ID badge, and a mobile data collection device (DMC). In addition, it is possible to verify the identity of the IBGS agent in website By answering IBGE or calling 0800 721 8181.

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