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The South Pole has been heating three times the global average over the past 30 years, the study said

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The South Pole has been heating three times the global average over the past 30 years, the study said

The study, published in the journal Nature Climate Change on Monday, sheds new light on the most remote areas on Earth. While scientists have known for years that regions outside Antarctica are heating up, they previously thought the South Pole, which is located deep in the interior, was isolated from rising global temperatures.

“This highlights that global warming is global and is heading to these remote places,” said Kyle Clem, postdoctoral researcher in Climate Sciences at the University of Wellington, and lead author of the study.

Clem and his team analyzed data on weather stations in the South Pole, as well as climate models to check for warming in the interior of Antarctica. They found that between 1989 and 2018, the South Pole had been heating up around 1.8 degrees Celsius over the past 30 years at a rate of +0.6 ° C per decade – triple the global average.

Scientists say the main cause of warming is rising sea surface temperatures thousands of miles away in the tropics. Over the past 30 years, warming in the western tropical Pacific Ocean – areas near the equator north of Australia and Papua New Guinea – means there is an increase in warm air being carried to the South Pole.

“It’s wild. This is the most remote place on the planet. Significance is how extreme temperatures swing and shift over Antarctica’s interior, and the mechanism that moves them is linked 10,000 kilometers (6,200 miles) north of the continent in the tropical Pacific,” Clem said.

Melting sea ice, Antarctic heat wave

Warmer temperatures have been recorded in other parts of Antarctica in recent years and this warming has serious global consequences, especially for the millions of people living on the coast who are vulnerable to sea level rise.
The Antarctic ice sheet contains enough water to raise global sea levels by nearly 200 feet, according to the World Meteorological Organization.
In March, climate scientists recorded the first heat wave at a research base in East Antarctica and in February, the hottest temperature ever recorded in Antarctica – 18.3 degrees Celsius (65 degrees Fahrenheit) – measured at the Argentine Esperanza research station.
The loss of ice in this region has also increased at an alarming rate over the past few decades. In the past 22 years, one giant glacier in East Antarctica has retreated nearly three miles.

While the South Pole remains below freezing and tends to stay that way, Clem says that the warming trends seen at the Pole are related to what we see on the coast and the Antarctic Peninsula.

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Warming “begins at the beach and works inland,” Clem said.

“As you move closer to the coast, where warming comes in, you will start to see more impact. When you reach a point near freezing you start to melt. Or you melt sea ice and you start to warm the ocean in the Weddell Sea and it affects life in that area, “he said.

Is the climate crisis to blame?

Initially, scientists discovered the South Pole actually cooled more than one degree during the 1970s and 1980s, while global temperatures were rising. The team said the cold period is to a natural climate pattern that occurs in cycles of 20 to 30 years.

Then the trend reverses rapidly “and suddenly we have almost 2 degrees of warming at the turn of the century,” Clem said.

A jump from 1 degree cooling to 2 degrees heating indicates an increase of 3 degrees.

Warming of the ocean causes massive loss of ice in Greenland and Antarctica, NASA research shows

Meanwhile, global temperatures have risen about 1 degree Celsius (1.8 degrees Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial levels and the aim is to keep global average temperatures within 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 degrees Fahrenheit) to prevent the worst effects of the climate crisis.

Clem said extreme fluctuations in the South Pole indicate that natural variability “mask” the effects of human-induced climate change.

The team found that warming was caused by natural variations in sea surface temperatures for decades. But these natural climate drivers “act together” with, or are reinforced by, global greenhouse gas emissions.

“We have a natural process that will always occur in the midst of global warming and human influence on the climate system,” Clem said. “When the two work together, it is extraordinary.”

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The science behind heating

In addition to human intervention from greenhouse gas emissions, the researchers say there are several natural processes that work behind the scenes to warm the South Pole.

A climate phenomenon called the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), which regulates ocean temperatures in the Pacific Ocean, shifts from a positive to a negative phase at the turn of the 21st century. It warms the western tropical Pacific, and causes more severe storms and storms.

At the same time, a wind system called Southern Annular Mode (SAM) moves south, bringing extra warmth from the tropics to Antarctica. Changes in SAM are to the Antarctic ozone hole and increase greenhouse gases, according to Clem. Experts are not sure what caused the change in the IPO, but have not ruled out human activity.

All of that makes the South Pole one of the fastest warming places on the planet.

The upper limit of natural variability

Since the temperature record of the South Pole only returned to 1957, scientists cannot draw definitive conclusions that warming was driven by human activity.

So they used a model that simulates Earth’s climate with concentrations of greenhouse gases that represent pre-industrial times – without human influence.

Scientists have recorded the first heat wave in this part of Antarctica

In the simulation, the team calculates all 30-year trends that might occur in the South Pole in the models. They found that the observed warming of 1.8 C was higher than 99.9% of all 30-year trends that might occur without human influence.

The authors say that while this means warming “lies in the upper limit of the range of natural variability that is simulated” the nature of the trend is “extraordinary.”

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“Almost everywhere else on Earth, if you have 1.8C warming for more than 30 years, this will be off the charts.” Clem said.

But the results are not 100%. So it is possible that warming at the South Pole can occur only through natural processes, according to Clem – but it is small.

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CBF congratulates Cruzeiro on the title, but makes a mistake with the “Portuguese” Pezzolano

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CBF congratulates Cruzeiro on the title, but makes a mistake with the "Portuguese" Pezzolano

The Brazilian Football Confederation (CBF) made a “gaffe” when congratulating Cruzeiro on the Brazilian Serie B title won last Friday (30) after the failures of Grêmio and Bahia. While congratulating the heavenly team, the entity “managed” to change the nationality of coach Paulo Pezzolano, identifying him as Portuguese.

“Until the 32nd round, the team under the leadership of the Portuguese Paulo Pezzolano had 71 points, eighteen more than Gremio, which is currently in second place. Organization website.

Cruzeiro fans are already “heavy” because of the CBF, because the organization does not issue the Cruzeiro Cup in next Wednesday’s (5) fight against Ituano at the Mineirana. The trophy will only be delivered in the last round of the competition, scheduled for November 6th.

The main bet of the Ronaldo leadership is to start the process of “reconstruction” of Cruzeiro, Pezzolano is a Uruguayan born in Montevideo on April 25, 1993.

The coach’s employment contract was duly registered in the CBF Daily Newsletter (BID). It states the correct nationality, such as Uruguayan.

In addition, when he was still a player, Pezzolano also played in Brazilian football, defending Atlético-PR.

Now off the field, Pezzolano became the foreign manager with the most appearances, ahead of Cruzeiro (52), and also the most victorious.

He was the only foreigner to win the title for Cruzeiro. His “predecessors”, the Uruguayan Ricardo Diez (1953), the Argentine Filpo Nunez (1955 and 1970) and the Portuguese Paulo Bento (2016), spent less time in Rapos and could not lift a single trophy.

In 52 games under Pezzolano Cruzeiro won 33, drew nine and lost 10 (69.23% profit). In these matches, the heavenly team scored 85 goals and conceded only 39.

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A moment of silence in Portuguese football over the tragedy in Indonesia

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A moment of silence in Portuguese football over the tragedy in Indonesia

The Portuguese Football Federation (FPF) announced this Sunday a minute of silence at the competitions it organizes, namely the Portuguese Cup, in memory of the victims of the tragedy that occurred in Indonesia.

“The Directorate of the Portuguese Football Federation announces a moment of silence in memory of the victims of the tragedy that occurred at the football stadium in Indonesia. The official website of the organization.

In the same note, FPF President Fernando Gomes says that “with great surprise and a feeling of deep pain, but also indignation” he learned “of the tragic scale of the events that have taken place in the stadium. in Indonesia”.

“It is with great sadness that I deplore the dramatic consequences of this tragedy, which resulted in the death of more than 170 fans, including many children. A football stadium should be a stage for celebration and joy, not for violence and death,” he said. concluded.

A moment of silence will be observed at the competitions organized by the FPF, namely the Portuguese Cup, the second stage of which will take place this weekend.

Indonesian authorities said 174 people were killed in unrest at the end of a football match in East Java, but acknowledged that the number could rise as many of them were critically injured.

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The tragedy, one of the worst in the history of football, occurred on Saturday evening when about 3,000 fans took to the field after Arema’s home team lost 3-2 to rivals Persebay Surabaya.

Police fired tear gas to try to contain the angry supporters, but their actions caused panic and thousands of people rushed to the exit.

Many people were trampled to death in the chaos of the stampede. At least two police officers were killed in the unrest that spread outside the stadium.

The Indonesian league was suspended and the authorities ordered an investigation into the incidents.

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New serious injury of the player of the national team of Portugal

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Extremo português oferecido ao Manchester United Lesão Pedro Neto

An injury forces Pedro Neto to be substituted in the Wolves game.

Bad news for Wolverhampton Wanderers and Pedro Neto. The Portuguese received a new injury, and, according to Bruno Lage, it could be serious.

Away to West Ham, where the Portuguese lost 2-0, Pedro Neto was replaced in the 24th minute by Adama Traore, and after the match, the Wolves coach said that the injury could be “ugly”.

Wolves are now in the Premier League relegation zone, and Pedro Neto may be left with no hope of qualifying for the World Cup in Qatar.

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