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Sir Isaac Newton considered curing the plague with a lozenges, a manuscript revealed



Sir Isaac Newton suspended his college studies in Cambridge as the plague ravaged England.

In a previously unpublished two-page manuscript dating from 1667, Newton wrote that in order to cure the plague, “the best is a frog suspended by feet in a chimney for three days, which eventually spewed the earth with various insects in it, upwards. A plate yellow candle, and shortly after death. ”

“Combining powdered frogs with excretion and serum is made into lozenges and is used in the affected area, expels transmission and expels toxins,” Newton noted in the document.

“I think of course that the current medical situation has an impact on people’s interest to read about its history,” Darren Sutherland, a senior specialist in books and manuscripts at Bonham, told CNN.

The writing also refers to using stones such as sapphire and amber as “zenexton,” or amulets, against disease, among more worldly observations such as “places infected with Plague must be avoided.”

Newton noted this when studying the work of Jan Baptiste Van Helmont, a famous chemist in the 17th century and a leading medical scientist who practiced at the time. Van Helmont died in 1644. Among his most important contributions was that he first identified the presence of gases such as carbon dioxide, and he coined the term “gas.”

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Although Newton was largely interested in learning about chemistry from Van Helmont, he also focused his attention on a book written by Van Helmont about the plague, “Tumulus Pestis” (“Tomb of the Plague”), based on his experience healing patients in Antwerp in 1605, according to Bonhams research.

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It is no coincidence that in 1667, Newton developed an interest in learning about the plague.

An estimated 100,000 people died from illness in London between 1665 and 1666, according to Britain National Archives. Newton himself famously spent two years in quarantine at Woolsthorpe Manor, his family’s estate in Lincolnshire, after he had to leave his studies at Cambridge. Newton’s account of the plague was probably written shortly after he was able to return to Cambridge.

“There must have been some kind of spark of interest at the time, just for his intelligence. While medicine was never the focus, I think there was a personal interest in this particular subject at the time,” Sutherland said.

One page of Newton's manuscripts detailed his rumors about the possible treatment of the plague.

Using vomit frogs or gemstones to cure plague does sound kooky today, but Newton “is not an outcast in the context of the 17th century,” Sutherland said.

The mention of frog charms and gemstones by Newton as a possible remedy for the outbreak did not surprise Elisabeth Brander, a rare book librarian at the Becker Medical Library, he told CNN.

“We usually associate it with what we consider to be very modern and forward-looking science, but when it was still alive, the lines between what we now consider science and superstition are far, far more blurrier.”

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According to Brander, Van Helmont’s frog healing came from the teachings of Paracelsus, a Swiss doctor who lived in the 16th century.

Every year, between 1,000 and 2,000 people are affected by the epidemic - including around 7 in the US

Paracelsus “believes that the outbreak was caused by celestial disorders in the body and that wearing certain amulets can help disrupt the damaging relationship between the body and the stars,” Brander told CNN.

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“We have since moved away from the idea of ​​the sympathetic forces that created certain disturbances in the physical body, but that made sense in the early modern period. Newton was in the middle of this transition period where the body of scientific knowledge was still in flux, which was very interesting, “he added.

Distinguishing between Newton’s scientific achievements and his reflections on frogs and gemstones is only possible for us as contemporary observers, with the benefit of looking back.

The 17th century was a time when many scientific discoveries that we now understand as the mainstream were first conceptualized and defined. Even ideas such as gravity, which are fully established today, take years to flow into general knowledge after Newton first formulated them, according to Sutherland.

“Important moments in our history are not important at this time,” Sutherland added.

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September, Holiday Month for the Deaf – Portuguese (Brazil)



Mutirão Opens To Negotiation Of Individuals' Overdue Debts - Português (Brazil)

September is a very important and visible month for deaf people, with three dates that raise awareness and celebrate achievements that are part of the entire community’s trajectory and struggle. These are: – International Sign Language Day, September 23; – Day of the Deaf, 26 September; and Libra National Interpreter and Translator Day on September 30th. With a focus on the deaf community, the Department of Education is promoting several initiatives in this area.

The first is aimed at changing the scenario of educational and language policy based only on the inclusive perspective of including a deaf student in the school environment without guaranteeing procedures that enhance accessibility in his education. The National Guidelines for Bilingual Education for the Deaf integrate all stages of basic education and are based on the promotion of bilingual curricula and pedagogical practices for the deaf: Brazilian Sign Language (Libras) and written Portuguese.

Through the Department of Special Education, the MEC coordinates with interested municipalities the construction, renovation or expansion of bilingual schools for the deaf. To date, 11 locations in Brazil have shown interest in the project. To complement this phase, the Libras National Textbook Program (PNLD) provides accessible formats to deaf students and public school teachers of basic education in the country.

In the academic world, in partnership with universities, advanced training courses are offered for teachers, managers and professionals who want to work with bilingual education for the deaf. Thanks to the projects of various institutions, there are currently 3,520 vacancies for teaching the deaf.

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On the Internet, Canal Libras is a space for communication and content distribution with a focus on the national educational network, from early childhood education to higher education.


Another important date: The National Institute for Education for the Deaf (Ines) turns 165 on the same Libra and the Deaf Day, September 26th. Within the structure of the Ministry of Education, the Institute stands out as a national reference in the field of deafness, necessary to support the formulation of public policies, and then for their implementation in the field. The Institute works to promote education for deaf children, youth and adults.

With information from Ministry of Education.

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Mother of autistic boy attacked by CR7 criticizes Portuguese again



Mother of autistic boy attacked by CR7 criticizes Portuguese again

The case of Cristiano Ronaldo’s aggression against an autistic fan continues to be heard in England. Sarah Kelly, mother of Jake Harding, has asked the English Football Federation to punish the Portuguese star.

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Sarah’s complaint comes after the league filed a complaint against a Manchester United player for aggression against Jake in the Manchester team’s match against Everton on April 9 last season in the Premier League. After an unsuccessful result, the Portuguese dropped a fan’s mobile phone on the way to the locker room.

According to Sarah, she and her son once again became victims of offenses in social networks after the announcement of the complaint against the attacker.

“People are following me, saying that I am rebelling again, but I didn’t know anything about it. The case should have been heard six months ago. My son talks every day about what happened to him. He still hasn’t returned his phone,” he said.

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Jake’s mother still asks how the player manages to sleep at night after what happened. “Let’s hope he finally gets the right punishment. He can’t keep getting away with it. Your behavior is unacceptable…” Sarah concluded.

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Marseille in California. ″Where the Portuguese is, there is Portugal″



Marseille in California.  ″Where the Portuguese is, there is Portugal″

“You are the future,” President Marcelo Rebelo de Souza told a three-year-old girl dressed in traditional Portuguese clothing who came out to greet him on the podium where he spoke at Artesia Portuguese Salon. The city, located on the outskirts of Los Angeles, has not hosted the President of the Portuguese Republic since 1989. This weekend, he did it with pomp and the setting of an ornate Portuguese-American community bursting with pride.

“We have never lost the honor and responsibility of being representatives of this beautiful flag,” said Jimmy Enes, a member of Artesia DES, a Portuguese descendant, in a welcoming speech delivered in perfect Portuguese. “When we are asked who we are, we always answer”i am portuguese“and not”Portuguese-American“or ‘Portuguese American’,” he said. “That’s why we’re trying step by step to protect our heritage on the outskirts of Los Angeles, one of the greatest cities in the world.”

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