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Sir Isaac Newton considered curing the plague with a lozenges, a manuscript revealed

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Sir Isaac Newton suspended his college studies in Cambridge as the plague ravaged England.

In a previously unpublished two-page manuscript dating from 1667, Newton wrote that in order to cure the plague, “the best is a frog suspended by feet in a chimney for three days, which eventually spewed the earth with various insects in it, upwards. A plate yellow candle, and shortly after death. ”

“Combining powdered frogs with excretion and serum is made into lozenges and is used in the affected area, expels transmission and expels toxins,” Newton noted in the document.

“I think of course that the current medical situation has an impact on people’s interest to read about its history,” Darren Sutherland, a senior specialist in books and manuscripts at Bonham, told CNN.

The writing also refers to using stones such as sapphire and amber as “zenexton,” or amulets, against disease, among more worldly observations such as “places infected with Plague must be avoided.”

Newton noted this when studying the work of Jan Baptiste Van Helmont, a famous chemist in the 17th century and a leading medical scientist who practiced at the time. Van Helmont died in 1644. Among his most important contributions was that he first identified the presence of gases such as carbon dioxide, and he coined the term “gas.”

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Although Newton was largely interested in learning about chemistry from Van Helmont, he also focused his attention on a book written by Van Helmont about the plague, “Tumulus Pestis” (“Tomb of the Plague”), based on his experience healing patients in Antwerp in 1605, according to Bonhams research.

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It is no coincidence that in 1667, Newton developed an interest in learning about the plague.

An estimated 100,000 people died from illness in London between 1665 and 1666, according to Britain National Archives. Newton himself famously spent two years in quarantine at Woolsthorpe Manor, his family’s estate in Lincolnshire, after he had to leave his studies at Cambridge. Newton’s account of the plague was probably written shortly after he was able to return to Cambridge.

“There must have been some kind of spark of interest at the time, just for his intelligence. While medicine was never the focus, I think there was a personal interest in this particular subject at the time,” Sutherland said.

One page of Newton's manuscripts detailed his rumors about the possible treatment of the plague.

Using vomit frogs or gemstones to cure plague does sound kooky today, but Newton “is not an outcast in the context of the 17th century,” Sutherland said.

The mention of frog charms and gemstones by Newton as a possible remedy for the outbreak did not surprise Elisabeth Brander, a rare book librarian at the Becker Medical Library, he told CNN.

“We usually associate it with what we consider to be very modern and forward-looking science, but when it was still alive, the lines between what we now consider science and superstition are far, far more blurrier.”

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According to Brander, Van Helmont’s frog healing came from the teachings of Paracelsus, a Swiss doctor who lived in the 16th century.

Every year, between 1,000 and 2,000 people are affected by the epidemic - including around 7 in the US

Paracelsus “believes that the outbreak was caused by celestial disorders in the body and that wearing certain amulets can help disrupt the damaging relationship between the body and the stars,” Brander told CNN.

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“We have since moved away from the idea of ​​the sympathetic forces that created certain disturbances in the physical body, but that made sense in the early modern period. Newton was in the middle of this transition period where the body of scientific knowledge was still in flux, which was very interesting, “he added.

Distinguishing between Newton’s scientific achievements and his reflections on frogs and gemstones is only possible for us as contemporary observers, with the benefit of looking back.

The 17th century was a time when many scientific discoveries that we now understand as the mainstream were first conceptualized and defined. Even ideas such as gravity, which are fully established today, take years to flow into general knowledge after Newton first formulated them, according to Sutherland.

“Important moments in our history are not important at this time,” Sutherland added.

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Portugal’s Lego Tram 28 project could become an official product

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Portugal's Lego Tram 28 project could become an official product

O engineer project Ezequiel Alabasafrom Alenquer, which consists of the Lego construction of Lisbon’s famous tram 28, could become an official product of the brand.

For the Portuguese, the project began during the pandemic, when the alabasas tried to entertain children by building structures out of pieces of a popular Danish toy. Later, he built a tram inspired by the famous 28 that runs through the streets of the capital.

This project consists of two parts: a 28 tram and a Portuguese Lego sidewalk, totaling about 2150 pieces.

Among the dolls that inhabit the building, the engineer added some elements typical of Lisbon transport, such as a pickpocket, a guitarist and a chestnut seller. There are also different passengers and driver (brake).

Tram 28 characters in Lego© DR

After the completion of the project, the Portuguese want this product to become official. voted on lego website. So far, he has won more than half of the required 10,000 votes.

If Ezequiel Alabaza with his Elétrico 28 gets 10,000 votes, the account will be closed and the project will be evaluated by Lego, who will have six months to decide if the idea gets the brand’s official seal.

Read also: First (and gigantic) Lego store to open in Portugal. know where

News by the Minute nominated for Marketeer Awards

O News by the minute is one of the nominees for the 2022 competition. Premium Marketerin category digital media. Voting will last until May 31st.

To help us win, just visit the website of the initiative organized by the magazine. marketerclicking Hereand proceed to filling out the form by selecting News by the minute in category digital media and then formalize the vote. Thanks for your preference!

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Who is Zambrius, the Portuguese hacker who gained access to important government structures?

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Who is Zambrius, the Portuguese hacker who gained access to important government structures?

He entered the system that controls Brazilian elections and was sentenced to six years in 2020 for hacking Benfica and Altis. Portuguese State

“There is always something going on in the suburbs of the Internet,” says the hacker, who at 19 had already hacked into several of the largest companies and public infrastructures in Portugal and Brazil.

Together with a group of hackers led by him Cyberteam, Tomás Pedroso, known in the internet world as Zambrius, gained access to Benfica’s computer systems, obtained some of Altis’s most sensitive data, as well as the network supporting the Brazilian electoral system and the three branches electoral system. General Staff of the Armed Forces. Now, at the age of 21, while awaiting the outcome of an appeal he filed against the six-year prison term to which he was sentenced, the hacker revealed that he gained access to the Garcia de Orta Hospital (at least 16 days before the program ransomware attack), ARS Centro Patient Transport Service, a platform that manages SNS financial resources, and an application that stores national exam data.

READ TOO
Hackers Hack Critical Government Services: Armed Forces, Healthcare and Education Are Vulnerable

However, this young man’s journey into the most hidden corners of the Internet began many years ago. At just 16 years old, he dominated the computer world to such an extent that he had already managed to gain access to some platforms of the highest state structures, such as the Judicial Police or the Prosecutor General’s Office, along with other members of CyberTeam. Eventually, he was caught and detained by the authorities and placed in an educational center for two years.

Attack on the Brazilian elections

Together with other hackers, the young man, who the criminal indictment says will have communication difficulties and attention deficits, took advantage of being under house arrest from May to November to access the Oracle network that was managing the data of the Supreme Electoral Court of Justice of Brazil (TSE) during the first round of municipal elections. In a report by CNN Portugal, the hacker admitted to gaining access to the network, but denied accusations of manipulating information that led to electoral changes.

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“I did not manipulate any information despite having access to computers and databases from Oracle, a multinational corporation in charge of processing the election results,” he wrote to CNN Portugal.

He was arrested by the Judicial Police in November 2020 in a joint operation with the Brazilian authorities that identified and detained three youths “for the ongoing crime of unauthorized access, computer damage and computer sabotage.”

Since then, the Zambrius name has become known for hundreds of DDOS attacks that flood servers and render them inoperable, website corruption that corrupts web pages, and SQL injections where it exploits website vulnerabilities to issue commands.

Tomas Pedroso is currently at large, pending an appeal from a six-year prison sentence with a twice-weekly obligation to appear and a travel ban. He was charged with 28 crimes of aggravated access, misuse of data and damage to computers.

Attack on Benfica and Altis

The court, which now found him guilty of computer crimes, charged the hacker with breaking into the website of telecom operator MEO Altice. The State Department believes that Thomas was able to access the company’s databases and “filter data, including names and addresses, customers contained in sales tables, and employees of the sales department.” In total, Zambrius had access to over 123,325 company data, including name, address, mobile phone number, and the companies they work for.

Another abusive access by a young Portuguese occurred in March 2020 when he managed to log into the MyBenfica portal, which was used as a back office for the Fundação Benfica website, which was used by the site administrators to manage and present content. The hacker then provided the credentials of 114 club employees.

Hacktivism or cybercrime

The Defense Ministry’s criminal case file describes the hacker’s actions as “illegal acts of a cybernetic nature,” which the young man calls hacktivism, “as a form of political protest achieved through cybernetic intrusion and incitement to civil disobedience.” “. Thus, along with “unidentified persons”, the young man explored various public and private systems, “scaling privileges and causing database configuration changes associated with the respective sites or other functions.”

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This was the case in the case of the attack on Jornal da Madeira, when Zambrius caused a change in the image of the newspaper’s website, inserting an image of a man with a covered face, in a hood and working at a computer, accompanied by a message against politician Andre Ventura, president of Chega!: “Cyberteam hacked (… ) Cyberteam was here!#antiventura Andre Ventura who f…! A system that e…! Ps: I ran out of patience to write cute text with fancy words!”

CyberTeam also did not pass by the Portuguese Association of Football Referees (APAF). The hacker successfully altered the image of the website, which now featured a photo of Rui Pinto, with a message in which the group questioned an investigation by the Portuguese authorities that did not take into account information posted on the Football Leaks website. “What is Portugal doing to fight corruption in football?” the group wrote.

Prosecutors say that when the young man successfully attacked the target, he proceeded to copy and “extract the information contained in the databases”, eventually claiming responsibility for the social media attacks.

cyberteam

In the history of attacks carried out by CyberTeam, there are hundreds of large-scale intrusions, including EDP. On April 13, 2020, a Portuguese electricity company was the target of a cyberattack that severely affected customer service systems. The announcement came the next day via Twitter, where the pirates threatened to attack Altice and carry out a large-scale attack on April 25 of that year.

At the time, they stated in a Facebook post that around 80% of Portuguese websites could be changed by the group. The hacker collective also claimed to have “access to several important systems in the private and public sector, including some courts, clubs, private companies” and added that “if necessary” they would hack into the television network.

CNN Portugal, a young man assures that the group of computer pirates he helped found is inactive.

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All you need is a smartphone and with time and patience you can find vulnerabilities and exploit them. This is what happened to the shortcomings that he discovered in April of this year when he tweeted a series of appeals to various critical platforms of the Portuguese state, including the García de Orta hospital page, the ARS Centro patient transport platform and the National Examination Jury.

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In a written response to CNN Portugal, which asked him about the motives for what justice has already deemed crimes, the hacker says that these attacks serve “only to notify” the authorities of the weaknesses that exist in the networks, claiming that they are willing to share with the network administrator the vulnerabilities of these systems. The hacker justifies the focus on health care, education, and defense by saying that they serve to demonstrate that these areas, “which hackers usually seek out for profit,” are not safe.

When asked if he is ready to work with the authorities to find and correct flaws in the most important systems of the Portuguese state, Thomas Pedroso answers with the question: “Why not?”.

Another target of the hacker was dozens of servers of the three directorates of the General Staff of the Armed Forces (EMGFA). Two years after he was able to infiltrate these platforms and be convicted for it, the hacker claims he was able to access the same servers again through the same vulnerabilities that were discovered in the past. CNN Portugal, an official source from the EMGFA, told CNN Portugal that the 2020 vulnerabilities “have been analyzed and actions deemed appropriate have been taken.”

“There are many types of attacks on servers. An attacker can steal information from users and use it for sale or own use, such as accessing ATMs or even bank accounts, can use phishing scams, inject ransomware to obtain ransom, use the victim’s server for future attacks, or mine bitcoins, the attacker locks onto the target as if it were the owner; In short, the attacker can completely manipulate the network and do whatever they want with it,” explains the hacker.

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BdP balance is already similar to Portugal’s GDP – Markets

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BdP balance is already similar to Portugal's GDP - Markets

The balance sheet of Banco de Portugal is already equal to the economy of Portugal. The central bank closed last year with assets of 219 billion euros, the highest ever, about 27 billion euros higher than in 2020, largely due to debt purchased under mega-monetary stimulus programs.

“The balance sheet is 219 billion euros, which corresponds to the size of Portugal’s GDP,” said the Governor of Banco de Portugal, Mario Centeno, in the presentation of the Board of Directors’ report for 2021. “We had an increase in balance sheet. sheet is explained by the increase in monetary policy and deposits of credit institutions.

The EUR 27 billion increase in monetary policy assets was driven by a EUR 17.1 billion increase in the monetary policy portfolio as a result of securities purchases under the new Pandemic Emergency Purchase Program ( PEPP) and Public Sector Asset Purchase Program (PSPP) bonds. In addition, refinancing operations increased by 9.6 billion euros. At the end of 2021, lenders’ deposits at the Bank of Portugal reflected an increase of €26.9 million year-over-year “as a result of a significant injection of liquidity as a result of the aforementioned monetary policy measures.”


In 2021, the evolution of Banco de Portugal’s financial statements continued to be influenced by the response to the expansion of the pandemic crisis, as explained in the paper by the central bank led by Mario Centeno.

“Gold has also had a positive impact on the size of the bank’s balance sheet, and these are the main trends,” Centeno emphasized for the precious metal, which increased by 4.3% (equivalent to 808 million euros) for a total of $19.8 billion. Euro. Banco de Portugal has also reorganized its management assets as a result of “taking advantage of the opportunities for profit” offered by the market.

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(News in update)

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