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From the Qing Empire to the People’s Republic, China’s concern about separatism deepened

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From the Qing Empire to the People's Republic, China's concern about separatism deepened

“We will never allow any person, organization or political party to tear any part of our territory at any time or in any form,” he said, standing under a giant portrait of Sun.

This is “our serious commitment to history and people,” Xi said in his 2016 speech, that China will never be divided again.

Concern over separatism can be seen in the hardline policies adopted by Beijing in Xinjiang, Tibet and Hong Kong, as well as an increasingly aggressive attitude towards the self-governed island of Taiwan, which Xi has vowed to unite with the mainland – with force, if needed.

But such policies can often backfire. In Hong Kong, in particular, hatred for Beijing has grown in recent years. In the past 12 months, when anti-government riots met with strict policies, songs such as “Hong Kong independence, the only hope” were more commonly heard among sections of the protest movement.
Such talks are contrary to Chinese leaders and the need to eradicate separatism has been given as the main justification for the new national security law. Advocating for independence – maybe even a discussion of the topic – can immediately become illegal.

Carrie Lam, the city’s chief executive, said the law would ensure “Hong Kong’s long-term prosperity and stability.”

States and separatists

Abraham Lincoln, 16th president of the United States, ever argue that “no government should have provisions in its organic law for its own termination,” and even the American separatist Confederate State not including provisions in the constitution that allow members to separate themselves.

Anti-separatism is the norm throughout the world, no matter the desire of many people around the world for their own country, or which is often stated as the importance of “self-determination” as a principle of international law.

Indeed, that UN resolution establishing that principle, which was adopted in 1960 amid a wave of decolonization, also stated that “any attempt aimed at disrupting part or all of the national unity and territorial integrity of a country is not in accordance with the aims and principles of the Charter of the United States.”
While Beijing and Moscow often blame Washington for supporting separatists in their own influence, US policies are often equally pro-status quo. When Croatia held an independence referendum in 1991, the US State Department declare its commitment for “Yugoslav territorial integrity within its current limits.” That year, President George H.W. bush Ukraine warned trying to separate from the creaking Soviet Union to avoid “suicidal nationalism,” adding that “freedom is not the same as independence.”
In 1996, Bush’s successor, Bill Clinton, the word Russia’s brutal war in Chechnya was based on “the proposition Abraham Lincoln gave for his life, that no country has the right to withdraw from our Union.” And in 2014, Barack Obama personally lobbying support Scottish voting to remain part of Britain.
This attitude, which is held by almost every country in the world – see Spain’s suppression of Catalan nationalism – is part of the reason, “for all the political upheavals of the last quarter century, the number, shape, and arrangement of countries on the world map remains very unchanged, “Joshua Keating wrote in”Invisible Country: A Journey Towards the Edge of the Nation. ”

“Since the end of the Cold War, global norms have prevailed upholding cartographic stasis, freezing on the map as it existed at the end of the 20th century,” Keating said. “This norm applies even when ethnic and religious conflicts rage in countries on the map.”

A player plays the role of the Qing emperor during the re-enactment of the ancient Spring festival ceremony in Beijing. Much of modern China's borders are based on the historic conquest of the Qing.

Adjacent China

It is possible that this norm is stronger, or stronger recognized, than in China.

Write in a managed state China Daily this month, Liu Xiaoming, Beijing’s ambassador to the United Kingdom, responded to London’s concerns over increasing Chinese aggression against Taiwan by saying the island “has been an inseparable part of Chinese territory since ancient times.”
While the People’s Republic of China has claimed sovereignty over Taiwan since it was founded in 1949, the historical basis for Liu’s claims can be challenged. Despite the fact that an island is an inseparable part of any country, what we now call Taiwan has experienced a long period out of Chinese control, during the reign of indigenous leaders and foreign invaders, including the Netherlands and Japan.

The same applies to other parts of China which are often called inseparable by the government, including Tibet and Xinjiang. While these territories were also often under Chinese control or influence, they were part of a broader imperial system completely removed from modern conceptions of nationhood.

The borders that China considers irresistible today – in the Himalayas, the South China Sea, and around various “inseparable” regions on the periphery – were not determined until the end of the 18th century.
This is not because of some unique characteristics of the Chinese state, but through the same aggressive expansion which pushed the growth of the British, Russian and Ottoman empires. But unlike this system, writes the historian Joseph Esherick“China itself kept its territory essentially intact when the Qing Empire was transformed, in 1911, into the Republic of China and, in 1949, the People’s Republic.”

“The borders of modern China do not fit into the historical boundaries of culture with ethnic Chinese (or Han) people, or with the borders of premodern Chinese states,” Esherick wrote in “How the Qing became China.”

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“Fully half of China’s territory today was obtained by conquest during the Qing dynasty, a dynasty in which the ruling house was not Han China but Manchu intruders from outside the Great Wall. Most of this expansion occurred only in the 18th century.”

Sam Crane, head of Asian studies at Williams College, said many states and territories that paid homage to the Qing Empire and were under its influence would not be considered part of China or Chinese civilization by Beijing.

“The imperial political control does not consider a single, general, modern national identity,” he said. “As soon as we arrived in 1949 the statement that the Tibetans and Uyghurs were part of the ‘Chinese people’ was established at a much greater level than under the Qing, and the political stakes that accompanied it demanded greater autonomy, thus, far higher . ”

Chinese President Xi Jinping was seen during the meeting in December 2019. Xi has developed an increasingly nationalist policy as the leader of China.

Anti-separatism

Modern ideas about nation states – about nations united by the same culture, language or ethnicity – were traditionally embedded in a series of treaties in the mid-17th century, when the Holy Roman Empire recognized the independence of two non-monarchic states. states, Switzerland and the Netherlands

That signifies, according to Keating, the point at which the state is becoming increasingly “the most significant unit in international politics,” becoming more important than the rulers or empires in the midst of increasing nationalism across continents.

This did not happen immediately and the breakup of the great European empires would not fully occur until the 20th century. In Asia, too, it was not until the Qing was challenged by decisive new nation-states, especially Britain, France, and Japan, the conception of the empire began to shift in the same direction.

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Apart from the adoption of imperial borders, since the fall of Qing, China has reinvented itself completely as a modern nation state, advancing the idea of ​​covering Chineseness – a system of language and education that encourages all within its borders to identify with being part of China.

Since the transition from socialism to a market-based economy in the 1980s, nationalism has emerged as a more important source of legitimacy for Chinese leaders, and many traditional symbols of the imperial past have been rehabilitated as part of this. Beijing’s claim to speak for China and the Chinese people often goes far beyond national borders, uniting ethnicity with the citizenship of the People’s Republic.

The concept of a nation state has also been expanded backwards from time to time, so that former imperial territories such as Tibet and Xinjiang, whose traditional societies have little ethnic, linguistic or cultural relations with those in eastern China, have become “part of the country since ancient times,” as Liu and other Chinese officials said.

Nevertheless, the borders of the Qing dynasty have not been proven to be fully contested under republican rule. After the collapse of the empire, Mongolia broke away, reaching formal independence from China in 1921 with support from the Soviet Union. While some fringe Chinese nationalist figures sometimes talk about reclaiming “outside Mongolia,” Beijing has been a long time recognized Ulan Bator and fostering strong trade and diplomatic relations with its northern neighbors.

Writing about global norms that support the status quo, Keating said, “the assumption is that if the secessionist movement is allowed to succeed, it will open up a dangerous Pandora separatism box.”

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This may be especially true in China, where a single pro-independence domino can trigger territorial riots.

Beijing has dealt with the desire for independence in Xinjiang and Tibet, in part, by encouraging the mass migration of Han Chinese to both regions, and advancing a policy of synification in education, language and religion. Changes in ethnic composition in the two regions make it more difficult to debate self-determination based on the idea of ​​racial or cultural differences with China, with millions of Han Chinese living in both regions.

Hong Kong and Taiwan threaten the status quo in different ways. Both are predominantly Han Chinese, and antipathy towards Beijing in these areas is not based on nationalism but as a rejection of the mainland political system. If one region becomes fully independent, this can damage the claims of the legitimacy of the PRC, based on the idea that historical China has always existed and always has to be.

Challenging this controversial idea everywhere – as much as in China as in Britain over Scotland, Spain over Catalonia, or Russia and Ukraine over Crimea. But as Keating wrote: “Countries in the world are not good in and of themselves; they are useful as long as they help provide public security and welfare for the people who live in them and for the world as a whole.

“When they fail to do so, our first impulse should be to ask how they can be improved, not just to state that they must be preserved.”

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Portuguese fund CA Património Crescente wins European award for highest return – Imobiliário

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Portuguese fund CA Património Crescente wins European award for highest return - Imobiliário

Open-ended real estate investment fund CA Património Crescente has once again received the MSCI European Property Investment Awards in the Diversified Portfolio category for 2021.

This is the 12th time that the Portuguese fund, established in 2005, has received this award, which distinguishes the national real estate portfolio with the best return. In 2021, CA Património Crescente’s real estate portfolio returned 7.8%, compared to 6.3% in the benchmark.

The largest share of real estate income was received through shopping centers and offices: 8.7% and 8.6% respectively, according to the Portuguese fund Negócios, which at the end of August had a portfolio of 141 assets worth 1,031 million euros.

CA Património Crescente is one of the six funds managed by Square Asset Management, with Grupo Crédito Agrícola being the custodian bank and responsible for its marketing and investments mainly in real estate destined for trade, offices, services, industry, logistics or hotels.

The CA Património Crescente fund returned an annualized return of 5.1% in April, which declined slightly to 4.23% after two years, rising to 4.72% after three years and 4.74% after five years. . The average ten-year yield was 3.95%.

Square AM was also once again awarded by Euromoney, which recognizes major leaders in real estate financial products and services, as the “Best Investment Manager” of 2022.

Square AM has been on the market for 17 years and is one of the largest real estate fund managers in Portugal with €1.3 billion in assets and over 25,000 investors.

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Benfica announces a partnership with Portuguese driver Miguel Santiago.

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Benfica announces a partnership with Portuguese driver Miguel Santiago.



Young competes at the National Speed ​​Championship and the FIM GP Junior World Championship.

Benfica have announced a partnership with driver Miguel Santiago, a Portuguese driver who works in the National Speed ​​Championship and the FIM Junior World Championship. Santi, who started taking his first steps in motorsport in 2016, was pleased with someone during the presentation. “The dream has come true! When I was little, before riding motorcycles, I played football, went to Benfica’s school in Mafra, I always dreamed of becoming a Benfica athlete. I never thought! A few years ago, if you had asked me, I would have said no, I believed that one day I would be here, it is a great pride. I have no words. I just hope to reach the goals, glorify the club. I have the race, the desire and the ambition.” , repeated the 18-year-old BTV pilot.

Miguel Santiago is thinking about becoming the queen of motorcycle racing.

“In recent years, the FIM Junior GP has attracted many riders to the Moto GP where 20 out of 24 riders [que participam] come from this contest. Participation in Moto GP is considered the greatest school of prodigies, I am proud to be there and so close to the level of Moto GP,” he said.

Flavio Miguel Silva


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“Unthinkable”. Every Portuguese wastes 183 kg of food a year.

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"Unthinkable".  Every Portuguese wastes 183 kg of food a year.

QuestionAs World Food Loss and Waste Awareness Day is celebrated, speaking at a conference on the subject in Lisbon, the official recalled the statistics released today by the National Statistical Institute and said the situation is “worse than expected.”

The data, official and published for the first time, refers to 2020 and shows that 1.89 million tons of food was wasted in Portugal this year, so each Portuguese wasted an average of 183.6 kilograms of food.

INE statistics show that families spend the most. The figures show that more than 1.2 million tons of food was thrown away by families this year, followed by catering (over 237 thousand tons), trade and distribution (214 thousand tons), primary production (over 101 thousand tons) and food nutrition. industry, about 61 thousand tons.

“We buy too much, we buy bad, let it spoil. It is unacceptable that a third of what is produced ends up in the trash, ”said an official who spoke at a debate organized by the United Movement Against Waste.

Ana Cristina Carrola of the Portuguese Environmental Protection Agency (APA), who also took part in the debate, stressed that the average amount of waste per year per inhabitant in the European Union is 173 kg, less than the 183 kg that is thrown away by the Portuguese.

“This is unthinkable these days,” he complained.

Jorge Moreira da Silva, President of the Platform for Sustainable Growth, former Minister of the Environment, another participant in the debate, recalled a recent report stating that the impact of food waste could be as high as 10% of global greenhouse gas emissions, and that the impact on the economy is a billion dollars.

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“Food waste alone is a quarter of what is needed to achieve the sustainable development goals,” he said, adding that while food is thrown out the window, 823 million people go to bed without “decent food.”

Jorge Moreira da Silva said that there are targets in the European Union to reduce food waste that are not being met and that mandatory targets will be announced soon.

The debate participants agreed that it is necessary to inform and attract the attention of families who often spend money without knowing it. “Most people have no idea about the impact of food waste. Nobody will change if they don’t understand the problem,” said Jorge Moreira da Silva.

The debate also spoke about the importance of water, which is present in the production and preparation of food. Ana Margarida Luis from Aguas de Portugal picked up an orange to say that throwing away an orange is equivalent to throwing out 80 liters of water.

Other figures released as part of the initiative are part of an awareness campaign that warn that food waste generates three times more greenhouse gas emissions than oil production, generates the equivalent of 25% of vehicle pollution, and pollutes four times as much as anything else. commercial aviation flights.

[Notícia atualizada às 21h09]

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