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Birds don’t all sing the same song. They have dialects too

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Birds don't all sing the same song. They have dialects too

He is not the real world Dr. Doolittle. He is an ecologist in Christchurch, New Zealand, who specializes in an unknown science: bird dialect.

While some birds are born knowing how to sing by default, many need to be taught how to sing by adults – just like humans. The birds can develop regional dialects, which means their song sounds a little different depending on where they live. Think of the Boston and Georgian accents, but for birds.

Just as speaking a local language can make humans more adaptable, speaking in a local bird dialect can increase the chances of birds to find a mate. And, even more horrifying, just as human dialects can sometimes disappear as the world goes global, bird dialects can be formed or disappear when cities grow.

The similarity between human language and bird song is not lost in Molles – or in fellow bird dialect experts.

“There are extraordinary parallels,” said American ornithologist Donald Kroodsma, author of “Birdsong for the Curious Naturalist: Your Guide to Listening.” “Culture, oral traditions – all the same.”

The first bird dialect expert

For centuries, bird song has inspired poets and musicians, but it wasn’t until the 1950s that scientists began to pay attention to bird dialects.

One of the pioneers in the field is a British-born behaviorist named Peter Marler, Who became interested in the subject when he paid attention to it chaffinches in England it sounds different valley to valley.
At first, he copied bird song by hand, according to his profile in the Rockefeller University publication. Then, he used a sonagram, which Kroodsma described on his website as “a musical score for birdsong”. (“You really need to see these songs to believe it, our eyes are much better than our ears,” Kroodsma said.)

These native New Zealand birds have regional dialects

Source: Laura Molles | Maps4news.com/ is owned by HERE

In the 60s and 70s, scientists put baby birds into a sound isolation room to see if they could sing their songs, according to bird expert David Luther.

The scientists found that some birds – who study their songs – could not sing at all. “They just continue like baby babble all their lives,” he said. The birds are known as “true singing birds”. In other birds, singing is innate. “When they grow up, they can only sing the perfect song without problems.”

When birds imitate adults, scientists find, they sometimes make mistakes. The error was then copied by another bird, and a local dialect flourished. That means that dialects can only exist in true singing birds because they have “learned oral traditions,” Kroodsma said.

Dialects can also be made when birds adapt to the local environment, says American ornithologist Elizabeth Derryberry. Birds that can be heard better can find a better partner, which means their song is more likely to be passed down from generation to generation.

This is related to the idea developed by Bernie Krause, founder of soundscape ecology, that animals make sounds in different tones so they can all be heard.

Some dialects change quickly – even in the breeding season. Other birds hold on to their dialect for decades. When Luther examined the San Francisco dialect of a white crowned sparrow – a common bird in North America – he discovered that some dialects have not changed at all in 40 years.

Dialect and dating (in birds)

For something that is often the result of copying errors, dialects can be very useful.

According to Molles, birds communicate for two reasons: Either they try to evict their neighbors, or they try to attract the attention of females. “Unfortunately, nothing is poetic,” he quipped.

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When it comes to defending the territory of other birds of the same species that are not local to the area, knowing the local dialect allows for more complex interactions. Copying a song note is considered aggressive for birds, so having a wider repertoire means that birds can convey their intentions without increasing interaction into fighting.

Knowing the local dialect is also useful for finding a romantic partner.

In many species, the males sing. According to Molles, females tend to prefer a familiar dialect – this shows that male birds know the local area, own territory, and not just “someone who passes by it.” Some birds are bilingual, or even trilingual – maybe because they grow around different local dialects. When they mate, they will choose to sing local dialects wherever they choose to settle, Luther said.

But not having the right dialect is not an insurmountable barrier.

Kroodsma gives the example of a prairie commander in Massachusetts, where he lives, who has returned every year for the past few years. Although the bird has a very unusual song, it attracts females and raises babies every year.

“Someone might say, ‘Well, there’s a novelty effect, a man with a very different song and all women think it’s sexy,'” he said. “But that’s just a wild guess.”

This is something researchers think about in places like New Zealand, where threatened birds are sometimes reintroduced to new areas. The researchers want to ensure that if they reintroduce birds, they will reintegrate, even if they do not have the right dialect.

A Kokako - native to New Zealand - at the Tiritiri Matangi Wildlife Reserve.

In Molles’ experience, it tends to function if a group of birds is reintroduced simultaneously, so they have a fellow bird with a strange dialect.

He was involved in reintroducing Kokako – a native blue-gray bird with a call like a violin – to the New Zealand area hundreds of kilometers away from where they were born. At first, newcomers might multiply among themselves, he said. But in the future, they might integrate. Descendants of newcomers will likely start interbreeding with descendants of native populations who grow familiar with both local and new dialects.

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“The woman is not necessarily looking for someone who fits the song sung by her father,” Molles said. “He found a match that matched the area where he wanted to settle – he wasn’t just a strange bird that might not be his.”

How humans change bird dialects

When cities around the world are locked, a series of questions arise on Derryberry.

Over the years, birds began to sing in higher tones in cities to be heard because of low traffic and construction. What will happen to the birds when the city is quiet? If it’s calmer, will a new generation of birds sing in lower tones? And next year, when it comes time to breed, will they sound like city noise again?

He was still trying to answer these questions, but Kroodsma was skeptical that a brief period of silence could be long enough to have an impact on bird dialect.

“It’s sad to hear some of that and think, We will never hear it again.”Laura Molles

Even if the death of our coronavirus hasn’t changed the bird dialect this time, it’s good to think about how we form – and destroy – the bird dialect in general. Something as small as an electric cable can suffice to break up bird populations and lead to the creation of new dialects, Kroodsma said.

In New Zealand, the land of birds only native land mammals are bats“There will be a wider range of dialects before humans arrive and reduce bird habitat,” Molles said.

Molles remembers finding historical records from the Kokako natives who are now gone.

“Some of the songs on the tape are amazing – strange metal sounds that you would never expect were made by birds,” he said.

“It’s sad to hear some of that and think, We will never hear it again.”

Design and graphics by Jason Kwok and Natalie Leung. Developed by Marco Chacón.

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Algeria interested in Portuguese companies investing in renewable energy – Observer

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Algeria interested in Portuguese companies investing in renewable energy - Observer

Foreign Minister João Gomes Cravinho met this Wednesday with his Algerian counterpart Ramtan Lamamra, who expressed interest in Portuguese companies investing in Algeria’s solar and wind energy.

Speaking with Lusa, João Cravinho also said that for 2023 it was decided to hold a “high-level meeting chaired by the prime ministers” of the two countries, a meeting to be held in Algiers, in addition to the state visit of the President of Algeria. Algeria to Portugal.

The Portuguese foreign minister said today’s visit to Algeria, where he was with Ramtan Lamamra, whom he has known since 2005 when he was ambassador to Lisbon, is “based on old knowledge”, but also a visit to a country that “does not to be a neighbor”, shares “a lot of fears”. “Not being a neighboring country, it almost shares many concerns about the region, the Mediterranean, the European Union’s relationship with Africa and the Arab world. It was important for us to talk about what we can do together as part of the geopolitical and geo-economic transformation,” he explained.

João Cravinho stressed that the issue of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine was a factor “which could not but be the subject of dialogue”, and also added that “geo-economic issues related to energy, renewable energy sources and the opportunities that come with the digital transition” also were on the table.

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“While Algeria is a major exporter of fossil fuels, it is also a country with huge potential in terms of solar and wind energy. We have very qualified companies in these areas, and the Algerian side has expressed interest in [ter] Portuguese investors in these areas,” the minister said.

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The official said that it would be a matter of working with the Portuguese Agency for Investment and Foreign Trade (AICEP), with the Secretary of State for Internationalization, as well as with a sectoral ministry, namely the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change. A “high-level meeting chaired by the prime ministers” of the two countries is scheduled for 2023, a meeting to be held in Algiers, in addition to the Algerian President’s state visit to Portugal.

“We have a very busy calendar between the two countries. Now we will try to organize a mixed commission, where technical specialists from both countries will gather,” he said, stressing that there are “14 legal documents that are practically finalized and will be signed” in 2023.

João Gomes Cravinho was on a visit to Algiers today to assess bilateral relations in the economic sphere, as well as in terms of cooperation, language and culture, and to discuss international issues.

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PORTUGUESE PARACHET JUMP IN THE NETHERLANDS

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PORTUGUESE PARACHET JUMP IN THE NETHERLANDS

Members of the Airborne Operational Battalion of the Parachute Regiment of the Portuguese Army during the annual Falcon Jump exercise on September 17, 2022 over the Ede launch zone, 18 km west of Arnhem, in the province of Gelderland, the Netherlands. A Portuguese skydiver is equipped with a SPEKON RS 2000 parachute from the German manufacturer SPEKON Sächsische Spezialkonfekion GmbH. Above him are US paratroopers with T-11 parachutes.

Photo by M. Bienik | 6 barrels per day

The annual Falcon Leap 2022 exercise, based in Eindhoven, in the south of the Netherlands, took place from 5 to 16 September 2022 in the Netherlands and Belgium. During the first week, the exercise focused on cargo drop operations, and the second week focused on drop operations. It was attended by more than 1 thousand soldiers representing 13 countries, including Portugal, with the participation of the Operational Detachment of 22 soldiers from the Airborne Operational Battalion of the Parachute Regiment of the Ground Forces.

The exercise officially ended on September 17, 2022, commemorating the 78th anniversary of Operation Market Garden, which began on the same day in 1944, during World War II, as part of the largest airborne operation in which more than 40,000 troops serving in the 1st Airborne Division of Great Britain, the 1st Independent Parachute Brigade of Poland, the 101st and 82nd Airborne Divisions of the United States of America. These commemorations were marked by the launch of paratroopers over the original drop zones of the Operation.

The photo was taken by the Polish soldier M. Benek, seconded to the 6th Airborne Brigade (BPD) – Brigadier General Stanisław Sosabowski, a unit that is the result of the historical legacy of the 1st Separate Polish Airborne Brigade, which jumped during the operation ” Bazaar Garden “, in 1944 under the command of General. Stanislav Sosabovsky – whose name is a suffix (as patron) of the current unit.

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Article published in partnership with “Espada & Escudo”

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Luana Piovani goes to Portugal’s Golden Globes with her boyfriend

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Luana Piovani goes to Portugal's Golden Globes with her boyfriend



Luana Piovani

Photo: Instagram/@luanapiovani/Famous and Celebrities

This Sunday, the 2nd, actress Luana Piovani went to the Portuguese Golden Globes along with her boyfriend Lucas Bittencourt. In her Instagram, the actress praised the outfits they were wearing.

Ready for the Golden Globes. Great guy. We are very, very luxurious, my love,” said Luana. While Lucas was wearing a black suit, she was wearing a short white lace dress with green accents at the waist.



Luana Piovani at the Golden Globes.  -

Luana Piovani at the Golden Globes. –

Photo: Instagram/@luanapiovani/Famous and Celebrities

“Long live the Golden Globes and long live you, my love, who accompanied me and constantly gave me a hand, because I have very high heels and I have a problem knee,” the actress shared.

Luana Piovani revealed the reason for the breakup with Pedro Scooby

Actress Luana Piovani finally revealed the real reason behind his breakup with surfer and former BBB Pedro Scooby. In the documentary “A Vida é Irada, Vamos Curtir”, the actress recalled the tense moment they went through due to the inattention of the athlete, which eventually became the trigger for the divorce.

While they are traveling with their family, Pedro forgot to extend their stay, leaving Luana with nowhere to go with her children and several problems to deal with. “I had to leave before 13:00 the next day because the property was already rented out. With three children and twelve suitcases, Luna remembered. “When I hung up, I took the ring off my finger, put it on the table and said, ‘My marriage just ended.’ indicated.

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